In a study published beginning February 2017
« A tunnelling scanning microscope gives an overview of entropy in action ».
In BLUE, Extract of the articl, in BLACK, my comments
« … in the journal Nature Communications (one) demonstrates that the position of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) tip with respect to the observed molecule modifies the energy requirements of the molecule to Form and, in turn, modifies the entropy of the system »…
« Entropy is often considered as a measure of disorder or chance, but here it is determined by the number of forms that the molecule could potentially take, as well as by the number of different ways in which the molecule could meet the energy requirements for Changing its configuration“, said Eric Hudson, associate professor of physics at Penn State and author of the paper. « If the tip of the STM increases the energy required by the molecule to bring about a change in shape, it also increases entropy in the system. In essence, a transition requires a potentially large number of small energy energies to co-produce and overcome the energy barrier for a change in configuration: the greater the number of excitations required, the more it is possible to collect these excitations, this multiplicity Engenders entropy ».
« [This result] was totally unexpected, » said Hans Joseph Hug, professor of physics at the EMPA, the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology and an author of the paper. « This means that the tip – which is still relatively far from the molecule and does not affect it at all – somehow influences the mobility of the molecule ».
This information can be interpreted as a real observation of the permanent balancing of entropy in a more or less limited system, which is here that of the molecule studied and its environment.
There is no additional energy or force that would permanently alter the position of the molecule in relation to the tip of the STM.
Everything is realized by the vibrations of the electrons, at the attometric level of their existence in all materials and objects, here the molecule and its environment.
« At extremely low temperatures – a few degrees above absolute zero (-273 degrees Celsius or zero degrees Kelvin) – the molecule moves very slowly and the STM almost captures a still image of the molecule, »Hudson said. But as we increase the temperature even by a few degrees, the molecule moves faster and the image of the STM shows the molecule in more than one conformation. It’s like taking a picture of a moving object with a speed slow shutter « .
« The rate at which the molecule « jumps » between the forms and the number of possible different forms that the molecule can take – a representation of the entropy of the molecule – varies according to the distance between the tip of the STM and molecule. « This means that the instrument we are using affects the system we are trying to study, » Hudson said. « But more importantly, it allows us to measure the entropy of the molecule and the fundamental relationship between entropy and the energy requirements of the molecule to make conformational changes « .
The research team was interested in understanding what drives a molecule’s ability to change its shape – a common requirement of chemical reactions and biological processes. They used an STM, which consists of an extremely fine wire with a fine tip that can be positioned with subatomic precision, to observe changes in the shape of a single dibutyl-sufid molecule, a long hydrocarbon with a atom of central sulfur, attached to a flat surface of gold. The current flows between the STM tip and the surface, and as the tip scans through the surface, the STM detects changes in this current as it passes over the molecule. These current changes are used to produce an image of the molecule “.
« The team also observed that the rate of attempt of the molecule – which is related to the entropy of the molecule – was also influenced by the position of the STM. « This implies that energy and entropy in this system are somehow linked to a fundamental level, » Hug said. « In addition, our results imply that entropy has a decisive role for the dynamics of the molecule , “…
This permanent regularization of the entropy which is observed here confirms that it is inherent in the medium which is always the Ether of the space existing everywhere and which could act according to the created compounds which always maintain a certain independence at their level.
This permanent entropy realizes a unit of the space of this compound.
This is the beginning of gravity.
Is this the quantum gravity sought by certain physicists?
This entropic gravity is created in all the new compounds, then the sets of these compounds, even in those which are called objects of space.
That explains why gravity in all small or large objects constantly varies within fairly low limits due to the fact that the regularization of the entropy is permanent, carried out as a function of any changes in the independent or interrelated compounds.
What we know on Earth, without having the ability to measure it because differences are usually very low between nearby compounds.
In recent years, Erik Verlinge, a Dutch theoretical physicist, has defended the idea of an entropic gravity, which seems to be proved by the current study.
It is to this gravity that we have reached our study of the creation of compounds and all objects of space of all dimensions and their even very extensive structures. See Chapter III of our Essay. Knowing that this essay is a tool of work in continuous modification, using the partial studies that we publish in this blog.
This also explains why the bonds and collisions of galaxies and all other objects of space are realized without shock, which always has for us on Earth a more or less strong sense of brusqueness or explosion.
Especially since all the evolutions of the objects of space are realized slowly, even the fusions of black holes without creation of particular waves that could be observed (LIGO).
We can thus confirm that the gravitational pull of the masses does not exist.
© – Philippe Dardel – 15, 02, 2 017