Chapter I – The Universe

The Universe has existed for almost an eternity, with the electrons that form the Ether, creating slowly, without time, the stars, their galaxies and other structures. Everything is difficult to understand or follow because of omnipresent chance …

1,1 – The Reality of the Universe,
1,2,a – The Space Ether, 1,2,b – Neutrinos, 1,2,c – Entropy,
1,3 – Gravity,
1,4 – Time, 1,5 – Space Time, 1,6 – Relativity
1,7 – The Age of the Universe,
1,8 – Active system,
1,9 – Random system and hysteresis

April 2017

1,1 – The Reality of the Universe

For us living beings, the Universe is as strong a reality as that of our very existence.

We do not know the reason for its existence, nor for ours.

What we know of it gives us no reason to think there could be one or more other universes that we do not know.

The reflections, on this, are philosophical, often guided by irrational beliefs so strongly held as to be unquestionable.

The study of the Universe is made by human beings, for themselves.

There is nothing, no one anywhere in the Universe that could do it for us and that we could understand.

Some physicists question the very reality of the Universe by asking themselves why something exists while a void could be in its place. Philosophers of science also raise questions about the value of what we do not understand and what we do not know that we do not know.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the study of the Universe was disturbed by cosmology. Einstein gave form to the Universe based on his theory of relativity, called cosmological, whose mathematical study is difficult to understand and accept.

Einstein was a physicist, not mathematician and his thoughts on the physical phenomena are more valuable than his mathematical development.

Many physicists continue to explain it as if no one had really understood it. This may be true.

His theories of relativity were based on poorly known elements in his time:

The relativity of Galileo transposed, in parts of non-breakable space, very physical observations of terrestrial events.

– The Newton gravitational attraction in which he himself did not believe. See chapter III.

Its average value on our planet is very variable depending on locations and is very different in all other objects in space.

In the last century its value has changed more than 300 times.

– The speed of light considered as invariable and insurmountable without reason since nobody knew what it was.

– Maxwell’s equations for non-existent phenomena, never explained.

The way we interpret facts and observations depends on the knowledge we have of them.

There was the discovery of the atom and then the discovery of its components; that of « geo » and subsequently “helio” “centrism”; the gravitational attraction of masses noted from the time of Aristotle and elaborated by Newton who did not believe in it himself; then Einstein’s relativity, the Big Bang and quantum mechanics, that no one could ever understand, explained its creators and Richard Feynman.

Nowadays, in the beginning of the 21st century, with improvements in observational technics, astronomers discover other objects and phenomena which lead them to take an interest in the theories of the last century. But it seems that astrophysicists, and mainly cosmologists remain wedded to ideas never actually proved, such as fundamental Universe constants, the expansion of the Universe and the supposed existence of unknown or exotic matter and energy called ‘black’.
But the ideas, too cosmological, begin to change, with questioning Einstein’s theories of relativity.

In astronomy, many scientists consider that 85 percent of the Universe would be made up of unknown or black matter or energy whose characteristics are difficult to know and understand despite all current research.

For some scientists, an invisible energy fills all space. Its manifestations are supposed to be very many. Others find in free space, a force called vacuum energy, related to an alleged expansion of the Universe.

This expansion and vacuum energy are hard to admit, and experts recognise that they do not yet understand them fully.

With constantly improving equipment, astrophysicists observe and explain that new stars are created with the remains of space objects, destroyed at end of their life and observed particularly in nebulae. The clouds of these real residues are invisible to us. It still lacks a real physical explanation of the light and all our use of the perturbations of space that all living beings feel unconsciously. These phenomena are discussed in Chapters IV and VI of this essay.
1,2,a – The Space Ether

Human beings have always thought of an Ether of space which would support the stars, gravitational waves and photons. But scientists of recent centuries imagined it with difficulty and did not find a substance that would be free of all its components and elements supported by it. The idea has been accepted for a more or less long time by many scholars including Descartes, Newton, Einstein and Poincaré.

Space is everywhere, in what we call space, of course, up to our home gate and in all material objects and in open spaces around and in all matters.

In this space, the systems of the objects are gathered into various structures, galaxies, clusters, and more, without observable or sensitive boundaries between these structures and the immense areas that seem empty.

Since the 17th century, many researches were directed to examine a ‘substance Ether’linked to the objects it would carry. The matter should have been constituted of atoms, like all other matters on our planet, and probably elsewhere. This was the system conceived by Pascal and later Michelson and Morley.

The researchers never found Ether.

Newton, before forming his idea on gravitational attraction, thought that the Ether could be a ‘kind of very subtle spirit that penetrates all solid bodies’We could say this about our Ether.

Other explanations indicate that the matter composing Ether has no influence on objects and therefore does not exist. This is a flawed conclusion: the fact that something has no apparent action for us doesn’t imply that it does not exist.

Currently, despite all our knowledge, it seems that physicists fail to establish a theory synthesising the ideas of the Ether and vacuum of space. They think that the ether would not exist, but none of them has been interested in the vacuum it could create, and its possible actual limitations.

Einstein considered Ether in 1905 in his studies of gravitation and relativity, then abandoned the idea. But he revisited it, and sketched a history of the concept of Ether in his lecture in Leiden in 1920. The lecture ended with this paragraph: « A space without Ether is unconceivable… This Ether should not however be conceived as being endowed with the property that characterises ponderable media. »

In Annex 5 of his book on relativity, he quotes Descartes and Kant and vindicates the first against the second, denying the existence of vacuum, that is to say, he specifies, the existence of a space without a “field”. He notes in the preface to the ninth edition of his book: « Physical objects are not in space, but they have a spatial extent. Thus, the concept of ‘empty space ’ loses its meaning « .

With our theory, we propose that space exists by the presence of elements that fill it entirely and create it.

This is at the same time the creation of the Universe itself.

Thus space consists of one volume, which is space itself and the Universe.

Its elements, the electrons of the Ether, are the « universal » medium.

They vibrate constantly with a variable volume in two dimensions, which we explain in the next chapter.

The elements of space seem to bear all the free space bodies and made objects, that is to say the electrons and the objects which are made of them, and which, as objects, keep their volume in space.

They are not held together, they just vibrate side by side and the movement of expansion of their vibrations makes them move away from each other; they may meet, incite themselves for their displacements, and possibly, randomly, sometimes bind, creating compounds.

They do not leave a gap between them, because nothingness cannot exist in the Universe; it would lead it to its non-existence.

In this environment, all bodies, free from all connections with others, of any quality or size, move without limit, except the meeting of other elements.

Other free electrons of Ether and other bodies resulting of previous meetings and their connections form inevitably more complex compounds which, by chance, at every possible contact and connection, in a time of billions of billions years, create the objects that we know.

Thus these objects of space, stars and planets in their galaxies and clusters are the results of the disorder of electrons of the space Ether.

There is no purpose in these creations.

Objects are always special, different from others, because somewhere by chance, one or many contacts between electrons were somewhat dissimilar…

By the end of 2016, physicists are starting to talk about the « cosmic web » which could be the modern version of the ether of space.

1,2,b – The Neutrinos

Wikipedia, March 2017: « The existence of the neutrino was postulated for the first time in 1930 by Wolfgang Pauli to explain the continuous spectrum of beta decay and the apparent non-conservation of angular momentum, and its first experimental confirmation goes back to 1956.

« Because the discovery of these particles is recent and because they interact weakly with matter, at the beginning of the 21st century many experiments are devoted to knowing their exact properties.  »

The neutrino was classified into the elementary particles of the standard model of particle physics.

According to the few explanations we have, neutrinos could be simply electrons of the ether of space that would be noticed when a somewhat particular event disrupts their arrangement, with repercussions more or less far, marked or not, by space waves.

As with all perturbations of ether electrons, the displacements of electrons, which are called neutrinos in these events, are always until the contact with another element, neutrlno or normal electron. But these displacements would be sensitive to living beings because they would be transmitted more or less far in a precise direction. This is how neutrinos could appear different « flavours ».

No specific action is attributed to them.

1,2, c – The Entropy

There are many definitions of it, depending on the speculations or sciences concerned, and all relate to the disappearance of defects or disorders tainting an object or a specific medium. When this disorder can not be displaced and eliminated because of a limit, it is generally broken, the pieces being distributed as well as possible in the area under consideration, with a maximum entropy being that the distribution can not be seen by differences apparent in the areas of the medium concerned.

The best example could be a drop of colorant in a colorless liquid, the entropy of distributing colour everywhere, even at the risk of making it indistinguishable.

This may concern any defect or quality added to an object, such as, in physics, the creation of an indestructible compound or an increase in thermal agitation which for us, and thermodynamics, is heat.

In the ether of the Universe, the maximum entropy exists permanently by the normal play of distribution of the vibrating electrons, maintaining their vibrations constantly. As soon as a disorder appears, it is distributed.

The problem of disorder and its disappearance by « entropization » is created as soon as there is a shift of time and matter possibly. We shall see here below and in the following chapters that it is thus that objects with particular entropies are created which will be defined as their gravity.

For the moment we simply retain that gravity has its origin in the ether of space.

1.3 – Gravity

As explained above and later in the essay, space objects are in perpetual creation and modification. Their shape and their number is constantly increasing. They live a few billion years, then are replaced by others that are built with previous remains. We will see that intricate bonds are indestructible, which might suggest that as measuring the progress of time, objects, stars, galaxies and other clusters gradually become larger.

Objects in space could be created just like those we know on Earth and in the solar system and beyond with astronomical observations.

The gravitational attraction of masses, attributed to Newton, does not exist. It has never been properly explained. We do not see any justification for it. Nothing explains why a mass would attract another.

To understand its presence in the space of current cosmology, we must go back to Aristotle and the Persian astronomer Al-Khwarizmi. Philosophers – Physicists « knew » that a force of attraction existed between the celestial bodies, for « standing them where they were.  » The studies were difficult, evolving with general understanding of astronomical systems.

The idea was acquired, indisputable. Such as the movement of the planets, the existence of light and heat from the sun. The stars ‘held’ themselves in the space because a link existed between them. The observed shifts of planets took it into account and there was no need to explain the basis of the system.

Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo continued the study, from a general system to another without ever questioning this ill-defined attraction that tied all these objects by their Mass. Then Descartes and Newton in the 17th century, show the same ideas, Newton adding earth gravity to this system.

Newton explains the gravitational pull in his work but he does not admit this attraction, from one body to another, even very far from each other, without a material connection. He would have been the first scientist to refuse it, but he found nothing to replace the idea accepted by all.

He writes this it but nobody will consider it.

Einstein at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, took up the idea with the theories of relativity. His mathematical studies are difficult, probably because he is not certain of the reality of gravitational waves. He will discuss them for the rest of his life.

The idea that Newton and Einstein lacked could be that of the internal gravity of objects created by the normal operation of electrons as explained by Électronisme. See chapter III.

We will see that in all compounds, materials and objects that form, a gravity is established by the normal functioning of electrons vibrations: reducing the volume of the bound electrons from their volume when they are separated, without loss of mass, in the compound creates a different density which is manifested by an inner attraction which is a manifestation of gravity.

The gravity in all compounds and objects is always accompanied by gravitic clouds, or particle winds, more or less bounded, participating to the creating of extremely various structures.

In space, all objects and their groupings, form the same type of gravity, with very different various phenomena, according to thermic agitation, sizes and qualities of the matters evolving to create new objects.

Thus, it is difficult to foresee all the events in space. The disappearances and regrouping of stellar and galactic systems are not very well known, but they all follow the electrons functioning rules, applying, on our planet and everywhere, to the smallest elements that are the constituents of the Ether and the matters of their objects.

The same rules inform the rays of compounds, creating thermic agitation, very rarely, leaving the gravitic clouds, forming relatively marked limits around all masses of objects and a space devoid of objects.

1,4 – Time

There was much discussion of Augustine phrases evoking time… « What then is time? If no one asks me, I know; but if you ask me, and I undertake to explain, I find that I do not know. I can boldly say that I still know that if nothing had happened, there would be no past time; if nothing should happen there would be no time to come, and that if nothing was happening, there would be no present time …  »

And also: « Time is not a knowledge but a thought. »

Time does not exist as a material concept with a tangible presence or substance that would have an observable action.

We perceive it when a new event takes place, different from another, previous or not, depending on how we observe it. The two events exist in different times, in what we call a space of time, indefinite period, like all other events in the Universe, near or far.

They were carried out at different times, without need for an element that separates or collects in a determined time. Multiple events can happen in a certain space of time, but no material element of time is needed to connect them.

If no new event occurs, there is no time that would be determined by the observer. In men everyday life on Earth, in the Universe, new events occur continuously and as they always have an impact on each other, an apparent time always exists.

It is the observer who creates time.

This was not the case at the very beginning of the Universe. Thus, we cannot estimate a duration for periods without events and without a time frame that could have set the date for the beginning.

Eternity exists in these conditions. We’ll never know its duration.

According to Électronisme, the only element acting is the electron. It consists of an unknown mass of material whose volume increases instantaneously and then reduces in the same way, increases again, and so on without interruption.

The action is instantaneous, without « time » for implementation.

With our human appreciation of time, we can consider that the operations follow one another, instant expansion of an electron, instant return to the minimum volume will not be realised at the same time and there may be a very short time of change of action.

There is no « time » determined between the two objects, an expanded and then contracted electron, which we see as new while it could be the same original mass.

We could observe four instantaneous operations and situations: the expansion of mass, its pause, a return to the original volume, its pause. These cumulative instantaneous operations take « a certain time » according to our human observations or reasonings.

With the very sophisticated equipment now used by researchers, we can observe and record intermediate stages, in which two objects are confused into one « time. »

We get a virtual or stealth image of an object that does not exist and that physicists consider a trace or footprint of new objects such as those discovered and used by quantum mechanics and listed in the Standard Model.

They are observed only during a very short « time » and are of a very varied quality, without ever showing a precise mode of action or participation in actual physical events.

This would be the case for particles like a boson, the Higgs boson, for example, which is described only as traces of an unknown thing whose form we do not know since it disappears as soon as it is created and we have never seen it. This would be an intermediate object shown by very or too precise specific equipment that observes objects that are very difficult to distinguish from each other.

The trace is found only in very small quantities in tons of accumulated information.

If it really was the vector of a « Higgs field » which would give its mass to the elements in the Universe, it should exist in very large quantity.

This could also be the case of neutrinos which change their « flavour », without anybody having so far found the reason for their existence and variations. Again, if it exists, it is surprising to find so little of it.

According to our current knowledge, living beings on Earth are alone in the Universe to use time for their material and social life.

Men gave human measures to time and our most accurate clocks are based on vibrations, « almost » stable, of well defined crystals. Current research is directed to the use of vibration of atoms in place of those of the crystals composed of atoms. We are getting near to the electrons’ vibrations.

In objects, all compound bodies vibrate a bit differently than electrons and maintain an agitation which can be very high, especially in stars. This agitation corresponds to movements at varying speeds of free compounds or particles; it does not affect the movement of electrons’ vibrations; so there is no significant difference in time compared to that of a space devoid of objects.

Thus to establish our distance to the stars, astronomers have never doubted the immutability of the « natural » speed of light.

We will see in chapter IV that it is based on the speed of movement of electrons’ vibrations. It is an accumulation of time observed for the « instantaneous » creation of successive objects.

1,5 – Space-time

In the Universe and its objects, for example on Earth, the assessment of four dimensions, three of space and one of time, is logical to allow us, living beings, to completely locate objects and events.

All are located in a point specified by its distance to some determined material bases at a specific time in their existences and ours.

Space-time has always existed in the lives of human beings. It is an unconscious and necessary unconscious social phenomenon that has no particular scientific value.

The dimensions, considered as tools for locating objects and events, exist only by sentient beings and for them. We have on Earth the matter that allows us to create these benchmarks.

Without them, the dimensions and distances cannot exist.

In the Universe, we have no reference or location of objects and their distances, except using our system of references.

Particularities of these dimensions, or extra dimensions that may be difficult to understand, are therefore meaningless for us in the Universe.

Symmetry, or another particular orientation of movements of particles and various bodies, cannot be assessed except with our references.

The curvature of space-time is a creation of Einstein, to try to incorporate the gravitational attraction of masses. This deformation is incomprehensible in an isotropic volume without structure. The graphs are misleading, showing deformed volumes, by an attraction pulling « down » without the consequences of ‘counter-deformations

Similarly, geodesic means nothing in the vacuum of space.

No astronomer has ever considered this curvature of space in his observations of heavens and the calculations of distance to galaxies and other objects.

1.6 – Relativity

It was studied by Galileo, which based it on the boat moving without a visual reference, and especially Einstein, who compared the displacements of elevators.

But it is a false problem because the base of the light is everywhere. We will see this in Chapter IV. It is a very important phenomenon in the functioning of all events in space and all the objects of the Universe.

Relativity is false because the date of events for the events themselves is always the same, not that of light coming from elsewhere.

It is in the event itself. If the event exists, it creates its own light and therefore its basis of measurement.

And all calculations of relativity are useless.

Different events exist separated by a time that we, living beings, calculate in relation to others that serve as landmark. That’s all
1,7 – The Age of the Universe

It is understood that we do not take into account the so-called BigBang theory, the idea of which, at the beginning of the 21st century, is no longer accepted by astronomers and astrophysicists who discover very old galaxies and structures.

We cannot imagine a beginning to the Universe.

For it to begin at a definite time that we would know, it would have to be created by something in a void that at the same time would not be nothing; and, for the supporters of space expansion, may still exist, but not necessarily.

According to our theory, the Universe has been existing since a non-start, which happened an extremely long time ago, an almost infinite number of billions of human years.

In chapter III, we explain the creating of electrons compounds, the first stage being not too frequent, the binding of elements of the Ether of space with others, free or already participant of particles and various bodies. As soon as they are linked together, electrons, taking part in the space Ether, are not free anymore but their volumes, though slightly modified, are still a participant in the system.

We may think that all the elements that make up the compounds were originally participants of the space Ether.

At the vert beginning of the no-start of the Universe, billions of billions years ago, a first singularity occurred: electrons tied together and that was the beginning of the creation of the matters, objects and the Universe as we know it.

These singularities have not been more frequent in the time that followed, and that continues at present, but they continue to happen, until they constitute all the objects existing in space. They are still hardly known and the astronomers and astrophysicists do not estimate the quantities of objects by numbers, or by mass or volume, compared to the volume of the Universe which is unknown to us.

But they try to estimate the volume occupied by the objects compared to the volume of the whole space, considering it as homogeneous and isotropic.

Recent observation (end of 2013) of a « large quasar group » which could be the largest structure ever seen in the entire Universe, shows that space is not what we thought it was.

The volume of objects, particles and constituted matters, increases regularly from the first links of the Ether electron. We could draw two cosmological pieces of information.

– A knowledge, in the “limited” volume of “observable” Universe, of the average rhythm of the links of the Ether electrons, and an estimate of the number of electrons in all the already created objects, could give us the age of the Universe, in billions of billions years, with an accuracy of more or less some tens of billions. An almost eternity.

– An estimate of the volume of space void of objects, could allow us to calculate the time for «filling» it, that means the number in billions of billions years needed until all the free electrons of the space Ether are changed into matter and objects. This would amount to another almost eternity, but in this case, it could take a bit more time at the end!

– And after? We have plenty of time to think about that! May be a Big Bang…

1,8 – Active system, without conscience

It is an active system, in the sense that its constituent particles constantly vibrate and create objects without a reason, in perpetual change and renewal in other forms. They are random and we cannot predict or track their permanent changes. We understand them with the help of the concept of chance, as we shall study at a later stage.

The elements always act in the same way wherever they are, regardless of environmental conditions. No conscience, provision or particular directive is possible or necessary, despite the immensity of the number of all relevant factors concerned.

Such a system can only work because the actors are all similar, and follow simple functioning rules.

The occurrence of the events and their quality depends solely on three phenomena:

The environment in which they take place, the result of all the above facts, or initial conditions that may be specified for a particular phenomenon.

– The state of the elements in contact. Similar elements in identical environments always give the same results.

Thus compounds are created and similar materials, for example crystals, in well determined systems. The phenomena are realised sooner or later depending on the available items, according to their qualities and quantities.

From chance. See next section.

Mathematics have no character that could indicate a need for an origin in the Universe. This is the subject of philosophical development without any connection with the physical phenomena.

The essentially random creation of all the materials and objects in the Universe does not allow the use of mathematical tools to predict their development.

Mathematics do not give a concrete reality to useful concepts and virtual elements to the reasoning as the directions of charges, antimatter or cosmological constants.

Everything can be observed in the Universe, but aesthetics and beauty are very specific sensations to living beings on Earth. Appreciation varies with them.

They can never be used to set universal rules or developments.

1,9 – Random system and hysteresis

Chance is involved in the entire functioning of the Universe system.

After Poincaré and other physicists in the early 20th century, Edward Lorenz studied chaos and established some laws, – when possible – with overly complicated mathematical developments.

The chaos reflects initial conditions.

They do not exist in the random system of the Universe.

The big difference between chaos and randomness of the Universe is that the Universe’s system does not accept « the hidden order in apparent disorder » (Wikipedia), or attractors with mandatory rules or fractals that are never complete.

The Universe has no initial basis, except that its existence is due to the vibrating electrons whose actions are simple and immutable, creating random objects that constitute the basis of the following ones.

In their studies, physicists, aided by mathematics, have always tried to reflect the chaotic randomness, with the initial received knowledge of their time. But each had his own. The information used also varied and it seems that no one has given what they were so much chaotic.

All creations of compounds, their modifications and transformations in materials and objects are the result of phenomena created by all similar electrons, according to immutable rules of operation « in all places and at any time » throughout the Universe.

Under these conditions, all events should be predictable.

This is not possible because the actions are carried out with completely random contacts of elements, free electrons or electron compounds, and their relative positions. Created or modified compounds are different from each other and unpredictable. Variations from one element to another in a specific area may be relatively small, which may allow the creation of almost homogeneous matter.

Chaos is a particular system that would limit the action of chance by bringing observations to a prior event that would be the beginning of the studied system. This does not change much for the Universe because the number of elements is so important that the return to a starting position is virtually impossible.

We might think that the random system of the Universe is peculiar since all operations are performed by electrons with very precise rules that would be « the » preconditions. But the actions are carried out « at random » encounters between elements whose qualities are not specified because they are the result of random previous operations.

This particular randomness of the Universe does not allow more forecasts than chaos or complete chance.

Studies have been made, with Laplace determinism and chaos theory, Poincaré studies, reflections such as the butterfly wing of Edward Lorentz in the 20th century. Excessively complicated mathematical models have been used to try to understand what we do not see and predict…  chance.

In meteorology, results depend on the importance of the mass of information gathered and used very quickly with complicated mathematical models.

Mathematical and computer simulations are therefore very difficult if not impossible for both the study of phenomena that have already taken place and for forecasting in space the creation of stars and other events.

Biologists and physiologists are currently discovering that randomness is very important in the creation and life of cells of living beings, and their very different molecules, elements of microscopic, nano-metric and even smaller dimensions. That is to say that we are still obliged to take into account some factors that we do not know, and give random results that we are trying to predict.

It is then natural to think that the phenomenon exists at all levels for all elements of smaller dimensions up to that of the electron, or in the other direction, towards larger space objects.

Because of random conditions for the formation of compounds, the objects created are all different from each other. Astronomers have never observed two planets, stars or galaxies that are identical in space. On Earth, the mountains or sets of the « same » rock or ore, are of varied qualities and varied forms according to their different places of origin. Marble cutters use granite in different colours according to their original quarry and coal, iron or copper, for example, are never identical from one region to another on our planet.

The frequency of the process and quality of results are always random for us.

No «decision» of action is instantaneous. During its movement, an electron, free or already participating in a compound, can meet another, similar, but in a different phase of its vibrations, and if conditions allow them to form a link, this action is carried out immediately.

They can also not act because the quality of contact prevents them. Several or very numerous successive contacts may not lead to entanglement and an event. when it occurs, it may have happened over a certain period of time that varies depending on the compounds, objects and environment.

This time lag between the first meeting that could have enabled the action to take place and the moment when it occurs is the hysteresis.

It is variable according to the quality and importance of the involved elements. It is perceptible by us directly, on our planet, in numerous phenomena such as electricity, and the creation time for some compounds and objects. Special cases for us are the creation and development of living beings.

Like time, the hysteresis is a phenomenon observed by men. It has no character linked to the Universe, space or objects.

It is a consequence of the fundamental rules of electron operations.

Its duration is essentially variable at all operating levels of the electrons even at a subatomic level that we cannot directly observe.

Without hysteresis, the Universe could not have existed. From its appearance, it would have immediately be fully created and destroyed, in strict application of the rules of operation of the electron, despite the notion of vastness, inseparable from that of Universe.

It is very difficult, if not impossible, to imagine without using the concept of infinite, « the immense magnitude » of the Universe, and therefore also its shape and limits, if they exist.

It has no form, if it is not limited in a material sense. Therefore it has no outside that would be another Universe or nothingness. Or else we must admit another theory, that of the existence of a significant number or infinite number of Universes.

It cannot be flat or convex or even as a Moebius ring, which may require, according to the belief, an exterior and a limit…

Cosmologists speak of its flatness without indicating what is the thickness of the flat sheet in the thickness of which our entire observable Universe would be found…

©  – PhDardel – April 2017