Chapter I – The Universe

The Universe has existed for almost an eternity, with the electrons that form the Ether, creating slowly, without time, the stars, their galaxies and other structures. Everything is difficult to understand or follow because of omnipresent chance …

1,1 – The Reality of the Universe,
1,1 – Reality of the Universe,

1,2, a – Ether of space, 1,2, b – Entropy,, 1,3 – Gravity,
1,4 – Time, 1,5 – Space-time, 1.6 – Age of the Universe, 1,7 – Active System, 1,8 – Chance and Hysteresis

Update November 2017


1,1 – Reality of the Universe

For us, living beings, the Universe is a reality as strong as that of our existence.
We know no reason either for its existence or for ours.
What we do know gives no reason to think that there could be one or more others that we would not know.
Reflections on this subject are philosophical, often oriented by religious beliefs, irrational and strong to the point of being indisputable.

The study of the Universe is carried out by men and for them.
There is nothing, no one, anywhere in the Universe that could do it for us and we could understand it.
Some physicists question its reality by asking why something exists when a nothingness could be in its place. Philosophers of science also ask questions about the value of what we do not understand and about what we do not know we do not know.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the study of the Universe was disturbed by cosmology. Einstein gave a shape to the Universe based on his theory of relativity, called cosmological, whose mathematical study is difficult to understand and accept.
Einstein was a physicist, not a mathematician, and his reflections on physical phenomena are more valuable than his mathematical developments.
Many physicists continue to explain his theory of relativity as if no one had really understood it. This is probably correct.
His theories were based on elements that were not well known at the time:
– The gravitational attraction of Newton, which he himself did not believe. See chapter III.
Its average value on our planet is very variable according to the places and very different in all the other objects of the space.
For a century, its value has been modified more than 300 times.
What will be the theory of relativity, if Einstein had taken the gravity figure on the moon or in a neutron star?

The speed of light considered invariable and unsurpassable, without reason since no one knew what it was.

– Maxwell’s equations for inexistent phenomena, never explained, electric and magnetic fields.

Our way of interpreting the facts and their observations depends on the knowledge we have of them.

There was the discovery of the atom and then of its components; that of « geo » then of heliocentrism; the gravitational attraction of the masses noticed in the time of Aristotle and specified by Newton who did not believe in it; then Einstein’s relativity, the Big Bang and quantum mechanics, which no one could ever understand, explained his creators and Richard Feynman.

Currently, at the beginning of the 21st century, astronomers are discovering other objects and phenomena that lead to an interest in theories of the last century. But it seems that many astrophysicists remain clinging to ideas that have never been proven such as the existence of fundamental constants of the Universe, its expansion and the supposed existence of so-called black, unknown or exotic matter and energy. . But some ideas are beginning to change, challenging Einstein’s theories of relativity.

In astronomy, many scientists consider that 85 percent of the Universe would consist of unknown material or energy, called black, whose characteristics are difficult to know and understand, despite all current research.
For some scientists, an invisible energy fills the entire space. Their demonstrations would be very numerous. Others find in free space a force called vacuum energy, linked to an assumed expansion of the Universe.
This expansion and the energy of emptiness are hard to admit, and experts recognize that they do not understand much yet.

With constantly improving material, astronomers observe and explain that new stars are created with the remains of objects in space, destroyed at the end of their life and observed especially in nebulae. The clouds of these real residues are invisible to us. It still lacks a real physical explanation of light and all our use of the disturbances of space that all living things feel unconsciously. These phenomena are studied in Chapters IV and VI of this essay.



1,2, a – Ether of Space

Men have always thought of a Space Ether that would carry stars, gravitational waves and photons. The scientists of the last centuries imagined it with difficulty and had not found any substance that would be free of all its components and elements that it would carry. The idea was accepted more or less long by many scholars including Descartes, Newton, Einstein and Poincaré.

Space exists everywhere, in what we call space, of course, even before our door, and in the open spaces around and in all matters.
In this space, the systems of the objects are grouped in various structures, galaxies, clusters and others, without observable or sensible limits between these structures and the immense zones which appear empty.

Since the seventeenth century, the many inquiries were directed towards a matter-ether, related to the objects it would carry. Matter would have consisted of atoms, like all other substances known on our planet and possibly elsewhere. This was how Pascal and later Michelson and Morley conceived it.
The searches never found it.
Newton, before giving his idea of ​​a false gravitational attraction, thought of a « very subtle kind of spirit that penetrates through all solid bodies » (Wikipedia). We can say it from our Ether.
Other explanations indicate that the matter of Ether has no influence on the objects, and therefore that it does not exist. This is a bad conclusion: that he has no action, apparent to us, does not mean ir does not exist.

Currently, despite all the knowledge, it seems that physicists fail to establish a theory synthesizing the ideas of the Ether and the vacuum of space. They think that the ether would not exist, but none of them was interested in the void that it could create, and its actual potential limitation.

Einstein took Ether into account in 1 905 in his studies of gravitation and relativity, and then abandons the idea. But he takes it again, and retraces the story in his lecture Leiden in 1920. The conference ends with this paragraph: « A space without Ether is inconceivable … This Ether should not be conceived as being endowed with the property which characterizes the ponderable mediums « .
In Appendix 5 of his book on relativity, he quotes Descartes and Kant and gives the first to the second one, denying the existence of the void, that is to say, he says. existence of an empty space of « field ». He notes in the preface of the 9th edition of his book: « Physical objects are not in space, but they have a spatial extent. In this way, the concept of « empty space » loses its meaning « .

With our theory, we propose that space exists by the presence of electrons, the only elements that fill it completely and creates it, by their spatial extent.

It is at the same time the creation of the Universe itself.

Space is thus made up of a single volume, which is space itself and the Universe.
Its elements, the electrons of ether, constitute the « universal » medium.
They vibrate continuously with a variable volume in two different dimensions, which we explain in the next chapter.

The elements of space seem to bear all the free bodies of space, that is to say, the electrons and the objects which are constituted of them, and which, as an object, keep their volume in that of the ‘space.
They are not kept together; they simply vibrate side by side and the movements of expansion of their vibrations move them away from each other; they can meet each other, incite themselves for their movements, and possibly, randomly, sometimes to bond, creating compounds.

They leave no void between them, because nothingness can not exist in the Universe; he would drag it into its non-existence.

In this environment, all bodies, free from all connections with others, of any quality or importance, move without limit, except the meeting of other elements.
They are other electrons of the Ether and electron compounds, result of the encounters and their connections that form ineluctably more important compounds and which, by chance, with each contact and possible connections, create, in time of billions of billions of years, the objects we know.

Thus these objects of space, the stars and planets in their galaxies, clusters and nebulae, are the results of the disorder of the electrons of the ether of space.

There is no purpose in these creations.

The objects are always particular, different from the others, because somewhere, by chance, one or many contacts between elements were a bit dissimilar …

At the end of 2016, physicists begin to talk about the « cosmic web » which could be the modern version of the ether of space.

The Neutrinos
We do not understand them and no particular action is attributed to them.

1,2, b – Entropy

There are many definitions, depending on the speculation or science concerned, and all are related to the disappearance of defects or disorders tainting a specific object or environment. When this disorder can not be moved and eliminated because of a limit, it is usually « broken », the pieces being distributed as best as possible, naturally, in the zone considered. Maximum entropy exists when the distribution is not distinguishable by apparent differences.
The best example might be a dye drop in a colorless liquid, the entropy of spreading the color everywhere, even at the risk of making it indistinguishable.
This can concern any defect, or quality, added to an object, such as, in physics, the creation of an indestructible compound or an increase in thermic agitation which for us, and thermodynamics, is heat.

In the ether of the Universe, the maximum entropy exists permanently, by the distribution of the vibrating electrons, maintaining their vibrations permanently. As soon as a disorder appears, it is distributed. If it can be.
The problem of disorder and its disappearance by « entropisation » is created as soon as there is a shift of time and possibly material.
We call « entropisation » natural balancing of the entropy and therefore the disposition of the elements in a specific environment.
 We will see in the following chapters that this is how objects are created, containing others, with particular entropies that we will define as their gravity.

For the moment we simply remember that gravity has its origin in the ether of space.

1,3 – Gravity

As explained above and later in the essay, the objects of space are in perpetual creation and modification. Their shape and number are constantly increasing. They live a few billion years, then are replaced by others that are built with the remains of precedents. We will see that some intricative links are indestructible, which might suggest that as time progresses, objects, stars, galaxies, and other clusters become progressively larger.

The objects of space could be created exactly like those we know on our planet and in the solar system and further with astronomical observations.

The gravitational attraction of the masses, ascribed to Newton, does not exist. It has never been explained. We do not see any justification. Nothing explains why one mass would attract another simply because they are masses.

To understand its presence in the space of current cosmology, we must go back to Aristotle and the Persian astronomer Al-Khawarizmi. The philosophers-physicists « knew » that a force of attraction existed between the celestial bodies, to « hold them where they were ». The studies were difficult, evolving with the ideas and explanations often philosophical and general understandings, very varied.
The idea was « acquired », indisputable, like those of the movement of the planets, of the existence of the light and the heat of the sun.The stars « held » in space only because a connection existed between them The observed movements of the planets took this into account and there was no need to explain the basis of the system.The idea was false but so well known that it was never in doubt, even now in the twenty-first century.

Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo continue the study, moving from one general system to another, without ever calling into question this undefined attraction that linked all these objects by their mass. Then Descartes and Newton in the seventeenth century, take the same ideas, Newton joining Earth’s gravity.
Newton explains the gravitational attraction in his work but he does not admit this attraction, from one body to another, even far apart, without any material link. He would be the first scientist to refuse it, but he finds nothing to replace the idea accepted by all.
He writes it but nobody will take it into account.
Einstein, at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, takes up the idea with the theories of relativity. His mathematical studies are difficult, probably because he is not sure of the reality of gravitational waves. He will discuss it until the end of his life.

The idea that Newton and Einstein lacked could be that of the internal gravity of objects, created by the normal functioning of electrons, as explained by Electronism. See chapter III.

We will see that, in all the compounds, the substances and the objects that they form, a distribution of the defects or disorders is established, by the normal operation of the vibrations of the electrons: the reduction of the volume or the « spatial expanse » of bound electrons, in relation to their volume when they are separated, without reduction of their mass, creates in the compound a different « density » which is manifested by an apparent internal attraction which is a manifestation of gravity. As if gravity was related to the outer surface of the compound more than volume or weight.

Gravity is never attractive.
So it is on our planet and for all the stars in their galaxies. If their mass was in question, the attraction would be much greater than that observed by astronomers.
The gravity of the objects is always accompanied by gravitic clouds or winds of particles which are more or less strongly bound to them, and which can participate in the creation of excessively varied structures.

In space, all objects and their groupings form the same type of gravity, with different phenomena very varied depending on chance, thermoc agitation, dimensions and qualities of current materials. of evolution to recreate other objects.
It is therefore difficult to predict all events in space. The disappearances and regroupings of stellar and galactic systems are very poorly known, but they are all the result of the operating rules of the electrons, which apply on our planet, up to the level of the smallest elements of the materials and objects. still the same rules which make the radiations of compounds, creating the thermic agitation, do not leave the gravitic clouds, forming relatively sharp limits around all the clusters of objects and an empty space of objects.


1.4 – Time

There has been much discussion of the words of St. Augustine referring to time … « What is time, if no one asks me, I know it well, but if it is asked of me, and I undertake to explain, I think I do not know it, but I can say boldly that I know that if nothing happened, there would be no time spent, that if nothing happened, there would be no time to come, and if nothing were done, there would be no present time …  »
And also: « Time is not an acquaintance, but a thought.  »

Time does not exist as a material concept with a tangible presence or a substance that has an observable action.

We perceive it only when a new event, different from another, takes place according to our way of observing them. Both events exist in different times, in what we call a space of time, of undetermined duration, like all other events in the Universe.
They were made at different times, without the need for an element that separates or brings them together in a certain time. Several events can occur in a certain period of time, but no material element of time connects them.

If no new event occurs, there is no time. In the everyday life of men on the Earth, in the Universe, new events are constantly being realized and as they always have repercussions on each other, an apparent time always exists.

It is the observer who creates the time.

This was not the case at the very beginning of the Universe. Thus, we can not estimate duration for the periods without event and without time which could have fixed the date of this beginning.

Eternity exists under these conditions. We will never know the duration.

According to Electronism, the only active element is the electron. It consists of a mass of unknown matter whose volume increases instantly and then reduces in the same way, to increase again, and so on, without interruption.

The action is instant, without « time » of realization.
With our human appreciations of the times, we could consider that the operations which follow one another, instantaneous expansion of an electron, instantaneous return to the minimum volume do not come true at the same moment and that there could be a very short moment of change of action.
There is no definite « time » between the two objects, an expanded and then reduced electron, which we consider a new one when it could be the same mass.

We could observe four different instantaneous operations and situations. The expansion of the mass, its stop, the return to the initial volume, its stop.
These cumulative instantaneous operations take a certain time according to our observations or human reasoning.

With the very sophisticated equipment currently used by researchers, we can observe and record intermediate stages, during which two objects are confused in the same « time ».
We obtain a virtual or furtive image of an object that does not exist and that physicists consider as a trace or imprint of new objects such as those discovered and mentioned by quantum mechanics and listed in the Standard Model.
They are observed only during a very short time and are of very varied qualities, without ever a precise mode of action or participation in real physical events.

It would be the case of particle like the boson, that of Higgs for example, which is described only by traces of an unknown thing whose form is unknown because it disappears as soon as it is created and we have never seen it. It would be an intermediate object shown by very or very precise material which observes objects very difficult to distinguish from each other.
The trace is only found in very small quantities in yottas of accumulated information.
If it were really the vector of a « Higgs field » that would give their mass to the elements of the Universe, there should be very large quantities.

According to our current knowledge, living beings on Earth are the only « objects » in the Universe to use time for their material and social life.

Men have given human measurements to time and our most accurate clocks are based on the « almost » stable vibrations of well-defined crystals. Current research is directed towards the use of atomic vibrations, instead of those of crystals, composed of atoms. We are approaching the vibrations of the electrons.

In objects, all compound bodies vibrate a little differently from electrons and maintain an agitation that can be very high, especially in stars. This agitation corresponds to the movements at various speeds of the free or compound particles; it does not modify the vibrations movements of the electrons; there is therefore no significant difference in time with respect to that of the empty space of objects.
Thus, in order to establish our distance from the stars, astronomers have never doubted the immutability of the « natural » celerity of light.
We will see in Chapter IV that it is based on the speed of the vibrations movements of the electrons. It is an accumulation of time observed for the « instantaneous » creation of different successive objects.



1,5 – Space-time

In the Universe, and its objects, on the Earth for example, the appreciation of four dimensions, three of space and one of time, is logical to enable us, living beings, to completely locate objects and events.
All are situated at a place specified by its distances to specific material bases, and at a precise moment in their existence and ours.

Space-time has always existed in the lives of men. It is an unconscious and indispensable social phenomenon that has no particular scientific value.

Dimensions, considered as tools for locating objects and events, exist only by men and for them. We have on Earth the materiality that allows us to create baselines.
Without them, dimensions and distances can not exist.
In the Universe, there is no reference, nor location of objects and their distances, except using the human bases.
Particularities of these dimensions, or additional dimensions that are difficult to understand, are therefore meaningless in the Universe.
The symmetry, or another particular orientation of the displacements of particles and varied bodies, can only be appreciated with our human references.

The curvature of space-time is a creation of Einstein, to try to incorporate the gravitational attraction of the masses. This deformation is incomprehensive in an isotropic volume and without structure. The graphical representations are misleading, showing the deformed volumes, by a « downward » attraction, without the consequences of the counter-deformations.

Similarly, geodesics mean nothing in the void of space.

No astronomer has ever considered this curvature of space in his observations of the firmament and the calculations of our distance from galaxies and other objects.



1,6 – Age of the Universe

It is understood that we do not take into account the so-called BigBang theory, whose idea at the beginning of the 21st century is no longer accepted by astronomers and astrophysicists who discover ancient galaxies and structures.

We can not imagine a beginning to the Universe.
In order for it to have begun at a definite moment, which we might know, it would have to be created by something, in a nothingness that would not be nothing and which, for the proponents of the expansion of the space, could still exist, but not necessarily.

According to our theory, the Universe has existed since a non-beginning, which occurred too long ago, an almost infinite number of billions of human years.

In Chapter III we explain the formation of electron compounds, that is to say the connection, between them, of free electrons of the ether of space or with others already constituents of particles and bodies. various. This first phase is infrequent.
As soon as they are linked to another, the ether-space elements are no longer free, but their volume, although slightly modified, is still involved.
We can think that all the elements that make up the compounds were originally participants in the Aether of Space.

At the very beginning of the Universe, billions of billions of years ago, a first singularity has occurred: elements have become linked. It was the beginning of the creation of the materials and objects of the Universe as we know them.
It was also the beginning of time.
These singularities were not more frequent in the time that followed, but they continued to occur until they constituted all the objects existing in space. They are still poorly known and astronomers and astrophysicists do not estimate quantities, number of objects, or mass or volume compared to the volume of the Universe, unknown to us.
But they try to estimate the volume occupied by objects compared to that of the entire space, considering that it is homogeneous and isotropic.
The recent observation (end of 2010) of huge structures, aggregates of galaxies, shows that it probably would not be.

The volume of objects, particles and formed matter, increases regularly since the first electron bonds of the Ether. We could draw two cosmological informations.

A knowledge, in the « limited » volume of the « observable » Universe, of the average binding rate of the elements of the Ether and an estimate of their number in all objects already created, could give us the age of the Universe, in billions of billions of years, with a few tens of billions of possible errator. An almost eternity.

– An estimate of the volume of the empty space of objects could allow us to calculate the filling time, that is to say the number of billions of billions of years necessary for all the free elements of the Aether of space are transformed into matter and objects. Another almost eternity.

– And after ? We have time to think about it! Maybe a Big Bang …



1,7 – Active system without consciousness

The Universe is an active system, in the sense that its constituent particles constantly vibrate and create objects without reason, in perpetual modification and renewal in other forms. They are random and we can not predict or track their permanent changes. We understand them only by chance, which we study here below.

The elements always act in the same way wherever they are, whatever the conditions of the environment. No particular consciousness, disposition or directive is possible or necessary despite the vastness of the number of all actors involved.
Such a system can work only because the actors are all alike, with simple rules of operation.

The realization of events and their quality depend solely on three phenomena:
– The environment in which they take place, which results from all the preceding facts, or initial conditions which could be specified for a particular phenomenon.

The state of the elements in contact. Similar elements in identical environments always give the same results. This situation is very rare.
Thus, and with the quantum effect studied in the following chapters, are created compounds and similar materials, crystals for example, in well-defined systems or objects. The phenomena are realized more or less quickly according to the available elements, and to their qualities and quantities.

– By chance. See following paragraph.



1.8 – Chance and Hysteresis

Chance participates in the whole functioning of the system of the Universe.

After Poincaré and other researchers, in the early twentieth century, Edward Lorenz, American physicist and meteorologist, studied the chaos that could be the random system of the Universe. He has established laws – if that is possible – with overly complicated mathematical developments.
The chaos takes into account initial conditions that could be limited for studies, recent events and very short-term evolution forecasts, which we can first need on our Earth. We can not know them in the complete random system of the Universe.

The Universe does not accept « the order hidden under an apparent disorder » (Wikipedia), nor the attractors that obligatorily have rules, nor the fractals that are never complete.

It has no initial basis, except that its existence is due to vibrating electrons whose actions are simple and immutable, creating random objects that are always the basis of the following ones.

However, the chaos of the Universe is modified by the « quantum effect » creating random disturbances of space that can reproduce similarly in other areas of space or materials.

The chaos of the universe is therefore a particular system that limits the action of chance by reducing the observations to a previous event that would be the beginning of the studied system.
This particular chance of the Universe does not allow predictions any more than chaos or complete chance.
Studies have been made, with Laplace’s determinism and chaos theory, Poincaré’s studies, reflections like that of Edward Lorentz’s butterfly wing. Excessively complicated mathematical models have been used to try to understand what we do not see and to predict … chance.
In meteorology, the results depend on the importance of the mass of information collected and used very quickly, with complicated mathematical models.

Mathematical or computer simulations are therefore very difficult, if not impossible, both for the study of phenomena carried out and for the forecasts of events in space for the formation of stars and other events.

Biologists and physiologists are now discovering that chance has a great deal of importance in the creation and life of living cells, and their highly varied molecules, elements of microscopic, nanometric and inferior dimensions. That is to say, we are always obliged to consider things that we do not know, and that make the results that we are trying to predict uncertain.

Because of the random conditions of compound formation, and despite the quantum effect, the created objects are all different from each other. Astronomers have never observed two planets, stars, or galaxies similar in space. On our Earth, the massives or sets of « same » rock, or ore, are of various qualities and forms according to the places. The marble workers use different colored granites according to their original quarry and coal ores, iron or copper, for example, are never similar from one region of our planet to another.

The frequency of the processes and the quality of the results are always random for us.

No action « decision » is instantaneous. During its displacement, an electron, free or already participating in a compound may meet another, in a different phase of its vibrations, and if the conditions of contact allow them to bind, the action is performed immediately.
They may not act because the quality of contact prevents them from doing so. Many or many successive meetings may not lead to an entanglement and an event. When it occurs, it may have taken a while, depending on the compounds, the objects and the environment.

This time difference between the first encounter that could have made the action and the moment it occurs is the hysteresis.
It varies according to the qualities and importance of the elements involved. It is directly affecting us, on our planet, in many phenomena such as electricity, and the creation times of certain compounds and objects. Special cases for us are the creation and development of living things.

Like time, hysteresis is a phenomenon observed by men. It has no character related to the Universe, the space or its objects. It is one of the consequences of the fundamental rules of functioning of the electrons.
Its duration is very variable at all levels of operation of electrons, even at subatomic level which we can not yet observe directly.

Without hysteresis, the Universe could not have existed. From its appearance, it would have been, immediately, entirely created and destroyed, in strict application of the rules of operation, despite the notion of immensity, inseparable from the Universe.

It is very difficult, if not impossible, – without appealing to the infinite – to imagine « the immense greatness » of the Universe, and therefore also its form and its limits if they exist.
It has no form, if it is without limit in the material sense of the term. So he has no outside that would be another Universe or nothingness. Or we must admit another theory, that of a large or infinite number of Universes.
It can not be flat or convex or in a ring, even from Moebius, which could require an outside and a limit …
Cosmologists speak of its flatness without indicating what is the thickness of this flat sheet in which would be found all our observable Universe …

© PhDardel – November 2017