Electrons – Chapter II

The qualities of electrons are known to all physicists. We add the vibrations that also exist in the compounds. They are the only actors in all actions with consequences that explain all the phenomena in the materials and objects of space.

II – Electrons
2.1 – Properties of Electrons, 2,2 – Vibrations, 2,3 – Energy,
2,4 – Mass, 2,5 – E = Mc2,
2,6 – Actions, 2,7 – Radiations,
2.8 – Matter and Prematter,
2.9 – Thermic agitation.

November 2017

2.1 – The properties of electrons

In the study of Electronisme, there has never been need for elements smaller than the electrons, which would be, for example, its components or would participate in the creation of the material or any other phenomenon or event.
In contemporary classical physics, there is nothing to suggest that electrons are not important.
This is a fact that seems to be accepted by all scientists. It is unfortunate that physicists do not consider this character in all situations in which electrons are used.

Nothing can be created from nothing.
No particle of any size, described with or without mass or energy, according to the needs of researchers or technicians, can be created from nothing, neither in space nor in the material of objects.

The properties of electrons are difficult to find among the definitions of theoretical, classical or quantum physics, contemporary and current use. Some characteristics are well defined, others difficult to understand.
For this study, we retain qualities recognized and accepted by a large majority of scientists.

The electrons are all similar and composed of an unknown material.

Their lifespan is « stable », which means they are indestructible.
All the figures we take are related to the randomness of all the information found on our Earth or elsewhere in space.

Their mass would be determined and fixed at 9,109,382 6 × 10-31 kg, for possible uses.
It is a quantum of matter, according to the precise definition of this word: « finite and determined quantity ».

Because of the vibrations, the size of the electron radius is not precise. We retain the average figure, indicated by physicists, of 10-18 meter, that is to say one millionth of a billionth of a millimeter.

In compounds, materials and objects, the number of mass quanta is always equal to that of electrons. The differences between the compounds come from the number of electrons and the quality of the bonds and structures created.


2,2 – The vibrations

To this description of their known characteristics, it must be added that the electrons seem to vibrate constantly, always in the same way, at the same precise frequency, invariable, always the same for all, in any place and time.
November 3, 2017. In the current state of our knowledge, we do not know exactly how the electrons exist and vibrate.
For the moment we keep the explanations already given and repeated below.

A « vibration » consists of four different instantaneous operations: expansion, stop, retreat, stop.
They occur one after the other because they can only be realized if the previous action took place.
No time (according to our normal use of the word) exists between the four operations of the vibrations, but they are realized in a certain time (human) very weak, almost insensitive, but always existing.

In the preceding paragraph, we have indicated that, because of vibrations, the size of the electron radius can not be very precise. We have retained the number of physicists, of 10 -18 meter.
The speed of light allows us to calculate the frequency of these vibrations, 1015 hertz, a figure compatible with current observations.
At expansion, we assume that the radius doubles in length, which increases the volume by about eight times.
These values ​​are to be verified by physicists.

At the end of the nineteenth century, Thomson and Hendrik Lorentz had considered the electron as the elementary particle of atoms and Lorentz had made a mathematical study of the vibrations he attributed to them; he linked them to a so-called electromagnetism of which Maxwell established the equations.

In recent years, the improvement of observation equipment and the ingenuity of researchers have made it possible to observe and analyze vibrations in certain bodies.
Physicists indicate that they would be associated with molecular bonds, or linked to energy and thermicagitation.
In late 2009, other scientists were able to « see the tremor frequencies » of particles. Their characteristics would be quite acceptable for electrons and their compounds.
Scientists have also observed the vibrations of all crystals and many compounds, without explaining their origin or their causes.

Moreover, it is often question of frequency in the descriptions of particles and objects or their operation, without ever indicating the action or the quality of this frequency; physicists know that a movement is happening more or less quickly, but do not know what it is.
In physics studies, we can not take this into account until we know what perceptible actions correspond to these frequencies.

In quantum mechanics, the particles would have a spin, that is to say, they would spin on themselves, at a certain speed. « Quantum » physicists doubt its veracity because this rotation would give the peripheral part of the particle a greater celerity than that of the light, considered insurmountable (which is not exact).
The spin could be an appearance of the vibrations.
In a recent text (2000 years) of the « Laboratory of Physics of Lasers, Atoms and Molecules, www-phlam.univ-lille1 » we read:
« Spin is a purely quantum » object « whose physical understanding remains, at the present time, to be completed. Despite this, the reality of spin would be proven and it is surprising that the rules are relatively simple. In particular, the spin can only take precise values, whole or half-integers.
These values ​​could be compared to the movements we say vibrations and that we attribute to electrons, with maximum and minimum volumes. They would explain the qualities of spins, which would merge with the vibrations of electrons.
For the constitution of matter, electrons are « materially » linked to others, which is incompatible with their eventual rotation.



2.3 – Energy

What we call force or energy is a poorly defined concept, difficult to understand. We attribute to it an action that would have been achieved through his intervention or incorporation into the elements.
From time immemorial, men have linked the movement of objects on Earth and in space to a force that would be necessary to carry out the operation. Later, with the development of certain techniques, ideas evolved. Energy was supplemented by electricity as a « force » that could be adapted to the needs and places of use of living beings.
We can not imagine this conxept because we do not know at all how it exists and acts, both for the movement of stars, and on Earth, to run an engine or other systems. Nobody knows in what form it is expanding and how it works, if it exists.
Physicists and all other scientists have never observed a material element that would act in or on an object small or large, solid or without a fixed form. This added factor would make him mobile or be able to get him to do a work.

Because this material reality of energy does not exist.

It does not exist, neither free in space, nor attached to elements, free or not, in space or in the materials of objects. On Earth, we have never used any product for direct action on an object or its environment. The action of fuels and other apparent factors are always the result of different bonds of electrons, combined to produce, often unconsciously, measurable work.

The operating rules of the electrons do not include any indication for actions other than the electron bonds between them.
Several successive or simultaneous actions can create phenomena that resemble the imagined action of forces or energy.

The « binding possibility » of electrons always exists everywhere in all subjects.
This is the definition we give in Chapter V for electricity.

This possibility also exists everywhere in the space, formed of electrons, for all these electrons which always have the possibility of binding themselves free or already participating in compounds.
Space does not contain free energy « natural » or black.
For it to exist, it would need a support which would be a particle or similar object, which has never been observed, any more than a real action that we could attribute to it.

Electrons and all their compounds have no « mathematical » sense of functionning.
This is understandable for a free body in a dimensionless space, since without reference base, and therefore for us, without orientation.

In the nineteenth century, physicists gave meaning to certain elements, especially those that appeared to contribute to electrical phenomena. At the beginning of the next century, the sense of particles was confirmed mathematically and used more, with no particular consequence for practical physics.
But theoretically and practically physicists continued to manipulate free electrons or participants in objects, regardless of what they would repel without ever being able to bind, if they all had the same « mathematical » sense.

The sense attributed to the electrons was necessary for mathematical studies, particularly those of Quantum Mechanics, and for the apparent repulsion of electrons and nuclei in atoms, as explained at the time.
It has no other utility and explains nothing, neither for free electrons, nor in atoms.
It has no influence on a sense that should affect the electron compounds with all a negative sense.
At the beginning of the year 2,011, scientists indicated that the explanation of these facts would not have been found yet.

In all our study of Electronism, we do not take into account a sense of charge of electrons and all objects that are made of them.
It is never necessary or even simply useful in the reasoning and explanation of all observations.


2,4 – The Mass

Mass corresponds to the constitutive substance of the electron.

We do not know what it is. It is inconceivable for the human mind in the present state of our knowledge.
Since the electron is indestructible, so is its substance. It exists permanently.
But we do not yet know exactly how electrons are presented and vibrate.
Their material is in-traversable and unbreakable.

All together, the electrons form the whole mass of objects in the Universe.

We found no reason for the attraction of one mass by another, as determined by the « gravitational attraction of the masses» proposed by Newton, who did not believe it himself. See next chapter.
If it existed, why would not it have bound together all the electrons of the Universe?


2,5 – E = Mc2

Einstein’s formula E = Mc2 is subjective and spectacular.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, it was in the air! Many physicists were looking for a formula linking mass and energy as they were known and studied at the time. This is Einstein’s formula that has been chosen by scientists and media! In its time, this formula could have some importance, psychological and political, at least in the scientific community.
For the « public » audience, it also had poetic value. Compare a grain of sand to a sunbeam!

The equation means that mass and energy can be substituted for one another in unspecified situations. It is used to estimate the amount of energy that would appear, when a little mass seems to have disappeared. We saw in the previous paragraph that energy has no material reality.
The coefficient c2 is relatively very large – the square of the celerity of light – to show that a little mass would correspond to a lot of energy. It is a human appreciation without meaning in science.
In the literature we have not found any example of a real mass transformation of a precise quantity of energy, or the opposite.
Some explanations mention particular units of energy, the Hiroshima bomb or the TNT ton, to measure the result of explosions. The measurements and their units are not particularly accurate!



2,6 – Actions – Movement

The free electrons of the Aether of space move randomly in the medium they create, incited by their « vibrations » and the meeting of other objects, which are always compounds of electrons.
One of the two following phenomena then occurs: a modification of their displacements or their connections.
These are the only two possible actions by electrons everywhere in space and in the materials of objects.

There is nothing else.

In this paragraph, we study the movement. The creation of the compounds will be the subject of the next chapter.

The free electrons of Ether have no reason to move.
They are close to each other and their own movements, magnifying or reducing their volume, move them a little, or give them an impetus for a movement in a certain direction that nothing can change, or stop, except the encounter of ‘another object, free electron or composed of electrons.
The incited displacement is rectilinear and unlimited, without the need for special forces called momentum or inertia, which are only observed or created by living beings.
When electrons move, they may encounter others, free or constituents of materials and objects. The displacements of the two elements that meet are then modified, according to their environment and participation in compounds.

We will see in the following chapter that the connections that sometimes occur during these meetings are always accompanied by various phenomena, including an increase in thermic agitation. This result stems from the normal rules of electron operation: the compound created, larger than the elements that have met, creates more opportunities for encounters, with their consequences.

We saw in Chapter I that the operating system of the Universe is random. It does not have general operating rules of « system » next to those of electrons. All connections are therefore random, both meetings themselves, and the environment in which they are realized.
Except intervention of the Quantum Effect that we explain in the following chapter.

These displacements of particles and free compounds, by their own vibrations, and their references, or connections, after encounters, realize at the same time a new distribution of the elements, rectifying a possible disorder in their arrangement.
It is a permanent balancing of the entropy, in zones of variable dimensions without precise limits, continuously moving.
Thus, in the free zones between the atoms and the molecules made of matter, free elements are distributed and eventually evolve these materials.
This « entropisation » creates an « entropic gravity » in all the compounds and objects of space as and when they are created, as an independent compound or part of some of them. Thus is eliminated the problem of the gravitational attraction of the masses, explained by Newton when he did not believe it.
It has been taken over, without explanation, by physicists since the nineteenth century and some still believe it, even though no explanation has been given.


2.7 – Radiations and Rays

Radiation and rays are terms that designate all objects, whether material or not, scattered from a center, to very different distances, depending on the quality of the « radiated » elements and the size of the medium traversed.
By moving away from the center, the volume of the radiated elements does not change, and the crossed zone is enlarged; the encounters of other bodies are gradually fewer.

In the physics of the Universe, all the radiations, in space and in objects, are displacements of diverse bodies, driven, during their contacts, by the movements of expansion of the electrons of which they are constituted. They cause more or less electron bonds with increased thermicl agitation.

Thermic agitation is only the movement of these elements.
The increase of the thermic agitation of an obget is solely due to the expansion of its surface by binding with free electrons or already compposed. Thus, the increase affects, at the same time, size, mass and temperature of the stars.
This also explains that the simplest bodies, free electrons and primo compounds are the fastest in their movements. This is the case of X-rays, gamma and others.
These rays are stopped and « absorbed » differently from each other by the materials encountered. Absorption means that they lose their independence and are incorporated into a compound, with increased thermic agitation.


2,8 – Matter and Prematter

We have seen, in paragraph 2.1 above, that the radius of electrons is 10-18 meters, which is an attometer, and that the average atoms of so-called constituted matter, of our planet as it currently exists, measure about 10-10 meter.
The difference in thickness between electrons and atoms is about one nanometer, corresponding to the thickness of one billion electrons.
In this thickness, the electrons are connected in very different elements which prepare the formation of atoms and other elements of matter which is constituted in small free objects in the nebulae. This is the state of the Prématter.
These small objects bind together to form bodies whose development depends mainly on their constitution. This is the case of stars and their possible satellites.

It is therefore in prematter that the atoms that constitute matter are created.
They are formed very early, from the earliest electron bond, as we currently define them on Earth, without modification, except the magnification by random bonds of electrons of space.
We study all these phenomena in the next chapter.

The quantum effect participates in the creation of this matter, which is sensitive to us by the observation of zones of different colors in the nebulae.

This would indicate to us the creation of masses of similar materials which form by acretion the objects we know in space.

Then, the material would be « augmented » and, in some cases, modified by free electron bonds of space, with increasing thermaic agitation.

In the nebulae, there are the remains of « dead » stars, which could determine the quality of the new created matter.


2.9 – Thermic Agitation

Vibrations and thermic agitation are two phenomena very different from each other.

The vibrations of the electrons are the permanent and invariable movements of their matter.
Those of the compounds are the resultants of those of the constituents, as a function of the quality of the bonds. Atoms, molecules, crystals and other bodies of our constituted matter vibrate under these conditions.
They begin to be observed and studied.

The thermic agitation, in a given zone, designates the average state of displacements of the elements which cause contacts of the elements, sometimes followed by links.
The quality of displacements depends on the overall vibrations of the compounds.

In our materials and in space, the transfers of « heat », natural or forced, are made by radiations, which create bonds of electrons directly, (it is the conduction), or with participation of intermediate elements (convection).

The thermic agitation is measured by the temperature of which the unit is the kelvin. With the same graduation, we use on Earth the degree Celsius and other scales of measurement.
In the zero-kelvin space, the vibrations of the electrons are normally realized.
The temperature of zero kelvin would thus be that of the space without activity except that of the vibrations of the electrons.
The temperature is currently about 2.85 kelvins, in the free space between galaxies. It shows the average level in this space, of the thermic agitation communicated by the bonds of electrons and the creation of objects in the galaxies and their environment.

Radio measurements of different temperature spots in certain areas of space could be disturbances that create space waves, possibly during WHIM electron entanglements. (See Chapter III).
There is no reason for these spots to be due to a « fossil radiation » that would remain attached to elements of the time, or that these waves of space « radio frequency » report a temperature of space at a precise moment in the evolution of the Universe. It was and still seems to be the appreciation of their discoverers, even though they received the Nobel Prize.

We can not imagine the visible material consequences of temperature of one or more millions of degrees or kelvins in stars or other objects. These values ​​are an evaluation of thermal unrest unrelated to heat, explained below.

Heat is the human perception of thermic agitation.
Henri Poincaré had stated this idea.

For all living beings, heat is the result, noticeable or not, of actions due to thermic agitation in their body. A burn is a modification of certain constituents of the cells, by unusual entanglements of electrons. New compounds are created, sometimes undesirable, often irreversible, – cells or tissues burned – phenomena that can have serious consequences on the life of cells, tissues and living beings themselves.
This is the case in particular for the contacts of living beings with the radioactive particles of nuclear reactors and radiotherapy.

© – Philippe Dardel – Updated, November 2017