Chapter II – 
Electrons and Prematter

The qualities of electrons are known to all physicists. We add the vibrations that also exist in the compounds. They are the only actors in all actions with consequences that explain all the phenomena in the materials and objects of space.

II – Electrons and Prematter
2,1 – The properties of the electron
2,2 – Vibrations, 2,3 – Energy, 2,4 – Mass,
2,5 – E = Mc2, 2,6 – Actions, Motion,
2,7 – Rays and radiations, 2,8 – Prematter
2,9 – Thermic agitation

Updated, April 11, 2017

2,1  -The properties of the electron

In the study of Électronisme, smaller elements than electrons have never been required which would be, for example, its components or participate in the creation of matter or any other phenomenon or event.

In classical contemporary physics, nothing suggests that electrons would not be paramount. It’s a fact that seems accepted by all scientists.

Nothing can be created out of nothing.

No particles of any size, described either by its mass or energy, depending on the needs of researchers and technicians, cannot be created from nothing, neither in space nor in the material composing objects.

In many physicists current texts, the word « electron » is imprecisely used to account for the activities of particles and compounds, of all sizes, or with variable power charges.

The properties of electrons are hard to find among the definitions of theoretical, quantum or classical, contemporary physics and in common use. Some are very specific, others difficult to understand.

For this study, we retain the qualities considered and accepted by the vast majority of scientists.

Electrons are all similar and consist of a constantly vibrating unknown material.

Their lifespan is « stable », which means they are indestructible.

Their mass is determined: 9.109 382 6 × 10-31 kg.

This is a quantum of matter, according to the precise definition of the word: « finite and determined quantity»

Because of the vibrations, the electron beam size is not accurate. We retain the average figure, indicated by physicists, of 10-18 meters, that is to say one millionth of a billionth of a millimeter.

In compounds, matters and objects, the number of quanta of mass are always equal to the number of electrons. The differences between the compounds come from the number of electrons and the quality of entanglement and structures created.

2,2 – The vibrations

To this description of their known characteristics must be added that electrons seem vibrate constantly, always in the same way. Their movements of vibrations occur at a precise frequency, invariable and the same for everyone in any place and time.

A « vibration » is made up of four different instantaneous operations: expansion, stop, contraction, stop.

They occur one after the other because they can be take place only if the previous action has taken place.

No time (in our ordinary use of the word) exists between the four operations of vibration, but they take place in a very small, almost imperceptible duration (on a human scale), however they always take place in a sequence and time span.

In the previous section, we indicate that, because of vibrations, the size of the electron radius is not accurate. We retain the average figure, according to physicists, of 10-18 meter, i.e. a billionth of a millionth of a millimetre.

The speed of light observed by scientists, allows us to calculate the frequency of vibration, and we obtain 1015 Hz, a figure consistent with current observations.

At the expansion, the radius length is doubled, thereby increasing the volume by approximately eight times.

These values are to be checked by physicists.

Hendrik Lorentz and Thomson in the late 19th century, had considered the electron as the elementary particle of atoms and Lorentz made a mathematical study of vibration which he attributed to them, and he connected them to electromagnetism, of which Maxwell was establishing the equations.

In recent years, the improvement of observation equipment and the ingenuity of researchers have allowed them to observe and analyse vibrations in certain objects.

Physicists point to the fact that they could be associated with molecular bonds, or connected to energy and thermic agitation.

In late 2009, other scientists were able to « see the tremor frequencies » of particles. Their characteristics would be quite acceptable for the electrons and their compounds.

In early 2011, researchers discovered that slightly different vibrations of apparently similar odour molecules change their qualities, and their perception by living beings.

Scientists have also observed the vibrations of all the crystals and very numerous compounds, without explaining their origin or their causes.

Moreover, the term frequency is often mentioned while describing particles and their functioning, without any indication of the action or quality of this frequency. Physicists know that a movement takes place again and again more or less fast, but they do not know what is it.

In physics studies, we can not take them into account until we know what movements these frequencies correspond to.

In quantum mechanics, particles have spin, that is to say they would turn on themselves at a certain speed. « Quantum » physicists doubt its veracity because the rotation would give to the peripheral portion of the particle a greater speed than that of light, considered unsurpassable.

The spin could be an appearance of vibrations.

In a recent text (early 2000) by « laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molécules, www-phlam. univ-lille1 » (Laboratory Physics Lasers, Atoms and Molecules, of the University of Lille in France) we read:

« Spin is a purely quantum “object » whose physical understanding remains, currently, to be completed. Despite this, we can consider the reality of spin to be proven and it is surprising that the rules concerning it are relatively simple. In particular, spin can take only specific «integer» or «half-integer» values.”

They could be compared to the movement of vibration, which we attribute to electrons, with maximum and minimum volumes. They would explain the qualities of the spins, which would merge with the movements of electron vibrations.

For the constitution of matter, electrons are « materially » connected to others, which is incompatible with their possible rotation.

2,3 – Energy

Energy does not exist in the Universe

It is a phenomenon that exists only by human beings and for them.

What we call force or energy is a concept that is particularly difficult to understand and of which we know only the performed action.

From immemorial time, men have linked the motion of objects on Earth and in space to a force or energy that carried out the operation. Later, with the development of certain techniques, ideas have evolved, the concept of energy has been completed by the concept of electricity, a force that could be adapted to the needs of living beings.

We, humans, cannot imagine what we call energy, while we use it for many of our activities and we attribute it some functions in space and its objects.

As if it had always been there and it was completely part of our lives. Thus, no one thought to try to understand what it is materially.

We studied the laws of its use, while we did not know at all how it works, both for the movement of the stars, and on Earth to spin an electric motor or many other systems. We established mathematical rules useful for technicians.

But no one knows what is its real form and how it works.

Physicists and other scientists have never observed a particular material element that would act in or on a small or large object, solid or of no fixed form, which would make it mobile or would be able to make it do a job, by transmitting it the force that might be needed.

This is because the material reality of the energy does not exist.

Electron operating rules contain nothing for actions other than bonds of electrons between them.

The conditions for creating these connections are explained in the following chapter.

This « liaison possibility », « available » everywhere, in all matter, is electricity.

It is only apparent and does not correspond to any element or special quality of electrons, except that in their contacts they can bond and form other real objects that shape their future.

This availability is tempered by chance. The connections electrons are realised in specific conditions of contact, as explained in the following chapter.

These conditions of presence and functioning of electrons, confirm that the electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields do not exist, neither in the materials of objects in space, or in space itself.

Space contains no free « natural » or black energy. For it to exist, it would need a support that would be a particle or similar object, which has never been observed.

Electricity on Earth is partially studied in chapter v.

Electrons and all their compounds have no « mathematical » direction of operation.

This is understandable for a free body in space without dimension, without reference points, and so for us without orientation.

In the 19th century, physicists have given direction to certain elements, particularly those which seemed to contribute to electrical phenomena. They were called electrons, and accepted as the primordial elements still sketchily defined.

Early in the next century, the direction of the particles has been mathematically confirmed, and used more, without special consequence to practical physics.

But, theoretically and practically, physicists continued to manipulate the free electrons or participants to objects, regardless of what they would repel each other without ever binding if they all had the same « mathematical » direction.

The direction attributed to electrons was necessary to mathematical studies, especially those of Quantum Mechanics and to explain the apparent repulsion of the electrons and nuclei in atoms, such as they were explained at that time.

It has no other purpose and does not explain anything, neither for free electrons nor in atoms as they are currently analysed.

It has no influence on a mathematical direction, which should affect the electron compounds with all the same negative direction.

In early 2011, scientists suggested that the explanation of these facts had not yet been found.

In this study, as in all Électronisme physics, we do not consider the direction of electron charge and of all objects that are made of electrons.

It is never necessary or even simply useful in reasoning and explanations of all the observations made to date.

2,4 – Mass

Mass is the constituent substance of the electron.

We do not know what it is. It is inconceivable for the human mind at the current state of our knowledge

As the electron is indestructible, its substance is indestructible too. It constantly exists.

It is in-traversable and unbreakable.

The quality of withdrawal and expansion movements shows that the matter of this « thing » is very special and inconceivable to the human mind in the present state of our knowledge.

Together, electrons form the entire mass of the Universe objects.

We did not found a reason for the attraction of a mass by another, as determined by the « gravitational mass attraction », proposed by Newton who did not believe himself. See next chapter.

If it was, why would it not bound all the electrons together?

2,5 – E = Mc2

Einstein’s formula E = mc2 is subjective and spectacular.

In the early 20th century, it was of its time! Many physicists were searching for a formula to connect mass and energy as they were known and studied at that time. It’s Einstein’s formula which was accepted by scientists and media. In his time, this formula had some psychological and political importance, at least in the scientific community.

For the general public, it had also a poetic valour. Comparing a grain of sand to a ray of sunshine!

Einstein’s equation implies that mass and energy can be substituted for one another, in situations that are not specified. It is used to estimate the amount of energy that appears when a little quantity of mass seems to have disappeared.

The coefficient « c2 » is relatively very large—it is the square of the speed of light—to show that a little mass corresponds to a lot of energy. It is a human judgement that has no meaning in the scientific field.

Reading the documentation, we have found no example of real change into mass of a specific quantity of energy or vice versa.

Some explanations point to specific units of energy, the Hiroshima bomb for example or a ton of TNT, to measure the result of explosions. These units however are not particularly accurate!

2,6 – Actions – Motions

The free electrons of the Ether of space move randomly in the environment they create, encouraged by their vibrations and meeting other objects.

One of the two following phenomena then occur, a change in their movement or a binding with another.

These are the only two possible actions by electrons across space and the materials of the objects.

There is nothing else.

In this section we study the motion.

The creation of compounds will be the matter of the next chapter.

The free electrons of the Ether have no reason to move.

They are close to each other, and their own vibrations incite them to move a little, or give them an impulse for movement in a certain direction, that nothing can change, or stop, except the meeting of another object.

The prompted displacement is rectilinear and unlimited, without need for special forces that would be called momentum or inertia.

When electrons move, they can meet other free ones or constituents of matters and objects. The displacements of the two elements which meet are then modified, based on their participation in compounds.

We will see in the next chapter that the connections, that sometimes occur at these meetings, are always accompanied by an increase in thermic agitation. This phenomenon stems from the normal rules of operation of the electrons. The created compound, larger than electrons that have met, create more opportunities for meetings.

We saw in chapter I that the Universe operating system is random. It has no general operating rules alongside those of electrons. All connections are made at random, as much the meetings themselves than the environment in which they are realised.

These movements of particles and free compounds, by their own vibrations, and their sending back after meetings, at the same time realise a new distribution of elements that create disorder.

Under certain conditions, the newly created compounds are distributed with all objects of the disorder.

It is a constant balancing, in areas of variable dimensions without precise limits, constantly moving.

Thus, in the free areas between the atoms and molecules organised in materials, free elements spread and eventually make these materials evolve.

This is what we call «entropization» in the preceding chapter, this phenomenon creating gravity in all the compounds and objects of space as they are created, as independent compounds or parts of some of them.

This phenomenon regulates and eliminates the problem of the gravitational attraction of the masses, explained by Newton when he did not believe in it, which we explain in the preceding chapter.

This phenomenon was taken up again, without any particular explanation, by physicists in the 19th century and some still believe in it, although no explanation has been given.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Einstein took up the subject in his theories of relativity, while he did not believe in Newton’s universal attraction. His theories block the study of a physics of the Universe

2,7 – Rays and radiation

Radiation and rays are terms that refer to all objects, material or not, that irradiate from a centre to a wide range of distances, depending on the quality of the « radiated » elements and the density of objects present in the environments traversed by them.

Moving away from the centre, the volume of radiated elements does not change, and as the crossing area expands, the encounters with other bodies are progressively less numerous.

In the physics of the Universe, all rays, in space and in objects are movements, of different bodies, dragged, during their contacts with each other, by the expansion movements of the electrons which compose them. They cause more or less electron bonds with increased thermic agitation, which is nothing but the general movement of these elements.

Thermic agitation is only the movement of these elements.

This explains why the most simple bodies, free electrons and primary compounds are the fastest. This is the case for X and gamma rays and other radiation.

These rays are stopped and « absorbed » differently from one another by materials encountered. The absorption means that they lose their independence, they bind to other compounds, creating new compounds with new increased thermic agitation.

Plasmas, on Earth, are created by an increased number of encounters and electron bonds in compounds. These compounds grow depending on electrons that bind to them which leads to other contacts and an increase in thermic agitation. At the same time, the compounds called atoms and molecules are destroyed by new bonds of their elements.

This phenomenon is inevitable.

It exists in all matter and objects, in stars for example ad all other objects even very small.

It is activated since the beginning of the formation of these objects in the nebulae and other structures in space. This explains their development, in billions years until their destruction forming other objects. We studied them in chapter II1, incorporating the recent discovery of the Prematter..

During the contraction movement of vibrations, close elements occupy the place left vacant by electrons or compounds that retract.

They seem to be attracted, which is not correct: there is only the expansion of neighbouring electrons.

In all the events that take place in the matter that we know and its objects, their expansion and contraction movements that are side by side and simultaneous can be interpreted in two different ways, either as an expansion-repulsion or as a contraction-attraction.

Objects and phenomena difficult to understand that we are trying to explain in the next chapter have been called magnetism and magnetic fields.

2.8 – The Prematter

We have seen in paragraph 2.1 above that the radius of the electrons is 10-18 meters, that is to say an attometer, and we know that the average atoms of matter called constituted would measure about 10-10 meters.

The difference in thickness between the electrons and the atoms is about one nanometer, corresponding to the thickness of one billion electrons.

In this thickness, the electrons are linked in very varied elements which prepare the formation of the atoms and other possible elements of the matter constituted or not.

We have called « Prematter », this substance or unknown matter of the zone between the electrons and the atoms of constituted matter.

This is a great study to undertake that could be based on the few examples below.

  • The universe would be composed of 90% plasma, to near a few percent..
  • This plasma would not be the one we know on Earth, which results from the ionization of the constituted matter.
  • It could be formed of Prematter, just before constitution of the atoms. The more or less viscous matter explained with the accretion of elements to form stars and planets
  • The Prematter could be the exotic matter often referred to as constituting stars and other objects of space.
  • The molecules of exotic materials discovered by the Physicists who obtained for it the Nobel Prize in 2016.
  • It could correspond, in the nebulae, to the viscous matter which are used to form the star systems.
  • Should we reconsider the constitution of the Sun and the material used for its « combustion »?
  • The objects of space would be formed directly in « plasma », without intermediate stage of matter constituted by atoms which continues to give their name to objects, clouds of particles called dust or gas.
  • This could alter our thinking about how black holes work, the creation and evolution of stars and galaxies.
  • On our Earth, some particular molecules could be of prematter, such as perovskites and « molecules » used in superconducting electrical systems.
  • The atoms could be very different from their current model.
  • In our not fully published study of what creates electricity, we found that light and electricity used similar rules and we were looking for materials that could « transport » electrons. Would a form of prematter be appropriate?

In the next chapter III, devoted to the compounds of electrons, we shall incorporate what we know of this premature and all that resembles it.
2,9 – Thermic agitation

Vibrations and thermic agitation are phenomena which are very different from each other.

The vibrations of electrons are permanent and unchanging movements of their constituting matter.

Those of the compounds are the resulting vibrations of their constituents, depending on the quality of the connections. Atoms, molecules, crystals and other bodies of our constituted matter, vibrate in these conditions.

They begin to be observed and studied.

Thermic agitation, in a specific area, designates the average state of the-radiation-movement of elements which cause contacts, sometimes followed by links with new radiation.

The quality of movement depends on the overall vibration of the compounds.

In the various matters and in space, the transfers of « heat », whether natural or forced, are produced by radiation, which create in turn electron entanglements directly (that is conduction), or with the participation of intermediate elements (convection).

Thermic agitation is measured by temperature, the unit of which is the kelvin. With the same kind of graduation, we use on Earth Celsius degrees or other measurements.

In space at zero kelvin, the vibration of electrons takes place normally.

The temperature of zero kelvin could be that of space without any activity except that of electron vibrations.

The temperature is currently about 2.85 kelvins, in the free space between galaxies. It shows the average level, in this space, of thermic agitation imparted by the electron bonds and the creation of objects inside galaxies and in their environment.

The recorded radio-metrics of spots with different temperatures in some areas of space could correspond to disturbances creating waves in space, probably during electron intricacies of WHIM (See chapter III).

There is no reason why these temperatures should be due to a « fossil background radiation » that could have remained attached to elements of its time, or that these waves of space with a « radiometric » frequency register a space temperature at a specific moment in the evolution of the Universe. It was and is still, it seems, the concept of their discoverers, though they have received the Nobel Prize.

We cannot imagine the visible, physical consequences of temperatures of one or some billions of degrees kelvin in the stars or other objects in space. These values are an assessment of thermal agitation unrelated to heat, explained below.

Heat is the human perception of thermic agitation.

Henri Poincaré stated this idea.

For all living beings, it is the result, perceptible or not, of actions due to thermic agitation, in their bodies. Burning, for them, is a modification of certain constituents of the cells by unusual electron bindings. New compounds are created, sometimes unwanted and often irreversible, for example in the case of burned cells or tissue—a phenomenon that can have serious consequences on the life of cells, tissues and living beings themselves.

This is particularly the case for contacts of living beings with radioactive particles from nuclear reactors and in radiotherapy.

© – Philippe Dardel – Updated, April, 11th 2017