Chapter III – Electrons to Stars

20th April 2017 – Update in progress

III – Electrons to Stars
3,1 – Electrons’ contacts, 3,2 – Entanglements,
3,3 – Gravity, 3,4 – Gravitic clouds, 3,5 – Magnism,
3,6 – Disturbances & Waves, 3,7 – Rays & Thermic Agitation,
3,8 – Matter, 3,8,a – Nanoscience, 3,8,b -Electrons, Matter & Pre-matter,
3,8,c – Atoms, 3,8,d – Molecules, 3,8,e-  The Death of objects,
3,9 – The Creation of space objects, 3,9,a – Space Observations, 3,9,b – Galaxies,
3,10 – The Electron’s Cycle


3,1 – Electrons’ contacts

In the previous chapter, we saw that the only two possible actions by electrons, throughout space and in the objects matters, are a modification of their movement and their binding with one another. In this chapter, we focus on the electron bonds to create compounds and the matters of all objects in space.

Contacts of free electrons or electrons already participating in compounds, cause sometimes, randomly, connections that modify compounds or create new ones. Without consciousness in the Universe, these actions cannot be planned or controlled. They must be automatic.
They therefore always take place, according to precise operative modes, that do not depend either on particular circumstances, or on previous phenomena, but only on their intrinsic qualities and their strict operating rules, leading always to the same precise actions, in any situation.

These actions are realised always on a primordial level, since the electrons are the only elements that act and create the bindings.
One must remember that the electron is a particle which measures 10-18 meter medium radius, that is to say, a millionth of a billionth of a millimetre and that all objects in the Universe are exclusively composed of electrons.
The average atom, as presently described since early 2015 by current physics, measures 10-10 meters, that is to say, it is a hundred million times larger than an electron.

The properties of electrons, free or already combined with others, are never modified. A free compound or atomic nucleus, wether it is formed of two, two hundred or two hundred thousands electrons retains all the characteristics of electrons.

Electrons are never merged: their masses are not confused. Quanta of matter remain always individualised in all the complex structures they form.

Because of their vibrations, electrons do not easily connect to one another. To do this, they must be forced to stay together after their contact. In these circumstances, the best mode of connection is their physical entanglement, which is the status of closely entangled things.
Its implementation requires specific physical characteristics for electrons: it is necessary that their external structure allows a sufficient contact under certain conditions of their vibrations. If the movement of « contiguous » electrons occurs at the same time in their vibration cycle, entanglement occurs. This phenomenon takes place only when a contact of a certain quality exists.

They could be of two kinds:
— Hard rigid encounters: The vibration movements of the two electrons are in different phases of volume, maximum and minimum. They cannot bind and seem repelled, in different ways, depending on motion speed and direction of their contacts.
— Soft encounters take place when the two electrons are in the same phase of their vibrations, with either maximum or minimum volume; they vibrate side by side and an entanglement is likely to occur.
Our way of explaining human time, to the first chapter of this essay, allows us to think that there may be intermediary contacts that would create more contact opportunities.
The precise state of the movement of electrons in contacts is always random and conditions permitting interactions are infrequent, at least in the material that we know on Earth.

It is always the electrons that carry out the operations in the space free of objects and in the materials of objects.
These actions are classified as electric, electricity being the phenomenon that makes the connections, while the electrons do not contain any force or « energy » that would be responsible to perform it.
In these materials, « useful » contact of electrons already combined with others, is not easily realised because their movements are slower.
Contacts may become useful with a certain time of successive contacts without effect. Thus the creation of certain materials may require successive movements accelerated by other contacts, creating an increase of thermic agitation. This explains the need to supply heat for some syntheses or to use catalysis, processes which are explained later in this chapter.

All creation of materials and objects is always very random, with very slow results that are sometimes perceptible by us by the hysteresis.
They could explain the almost eternity of the Universe.

3,2 – Entanglements

Because of their vibrations, electrons keep permanently their ball shape, with variable diameter, minimum and maximum.
The state of electrons determines their connections. Each electron accepts only a small number of bonds in that they are spherical, and of the same average volume, despite the variations due to vibration.

Since Kepler and Gregory, in the 17th century, many physicists and vegetable growers were interested in the volume of piles of oranges in displays… The number to remember for oranges and electrons that touch each other is 12, around a thirteenth one, with some margins due to wilting of citrus fruits or volume changes and the entanglement of electrons.
Each electron may not be surrounded and firmly entangled, by more than 12 others, whatever the circumstances.
The intricacies are irreversible.
When the action is possible, it always takes place. No device or conscious program exists in the Universe that could delay or prevent it.
A new action can take place immediately after, but it is absolutely not related to the previous.
No component, free or participant to another object in any matter whatsoever, can backtrack to restore the previous situation. The only new changes are other linkages which swell or bind the compound to another.

3,3 – Gravity

March 2017. This phenomenon is under review by many physicists who question the « gravitational pull of the masses » as defined by Newton and Einstein, even though these two scientists never accepted this phenomenon.

On the other hand, our idea of gravity in objects has evolved. We consider that it is a consequence of a « natural » permanent entropization of the electrons of the ether of space which must resume its normal place in all the studies of the Universe. We explain our position and do not modify very much the previous wording of the paragraphs.

When their intricacy takes place, the electrons bound to apparently form only an object, can not « physically » develop fully during the expansion, therefore the volume of compounds is smaller than the sum of volumes of components.
This reduction is refers to the volume of the compound, without any modification in the characteristics of the electrons themselves. Its mass does not change and corresponds to the total masses of its components. Relative to the volume, it is therefore increased, forming a contraction of the mass by itself, like an internal attraction.
The electrons of the ether in which the compound is found continue to vibrate and position themselves in relation to each other, creating a permanent « entropization » that unconsciously seeks a maximum entropy.

This is gravity.

That summarizes the natural and intrinsic behavior of all the free electrons of the ether of space.
It completely replaces the gravitational pull of the masses and completely challenges Einstein’s theories of relativity, which is beginning to be accepted by physicists.

It is adapted to the compound in which it is formed.
This compound is always part of a greater compound which also has its gravity. All bodies and objects show therefore a common gravity, resulting from that of all its components.
Its « strength » is proportional to the amount of electrons; it is relatively larger with the links between « graves » or heavy compounds, having a bigger amount of electrons.

Gravitation was studied in the 17th century by Newton, who resumed the work of Galilee and Kepler. It also worked practically on the idea of the first observers of space, of a force that held together the stars in the firmament.
Despite all his research, observations and reflections, Newton found no explanation for this phenomenon and the phenomenon of falling of bodies. He then proposed a gravitational attraction that would link all bodies by their own mass. This approach was understandable because the studies he was undertaking were all performed on space objects within our galaxy. The scientists of the time did not distinguish between the space of the galaxy and of the Universe. All known objects were bound by the gravities of their galaxies. But it was risky to generalise to the entire space of the Universe still not well known.
At the same time, he wrote that it could not exist: « I restore to physics that thing « prohibited » since Aristotle: « instantaneous remote» action. And he sent a letter to Richard Bentley in 1692: « Whether gravity is innate, inherent and essential to matter, so that a body could act upon another at a distance through a vacuum, without mediation of other things, by which and through which their action and force can be communicated from one to the other is to me an absurdity that I believe no man, having the ability to reason competently in philosophical matters, could ever be guilty of ». At the same time, he implicitly confirmed the existence of the Ether of space, which at that time, was misunderstood but was not questioned.
Physicists at the end of the 17th century did not easily accept his ideas. It took almost thirty years in order that, in France and Germany, Newton’s works were recognised, but not always accepted. It is amazing that currently physicists and commentators relate only very rarely these doubts of Newton, while hard evidence of the gravitational attraction of the masses has not yet been found.
The findings, beginning of 2016, of Ligo and Virgo interferometers, are not evidence.

Two centuries later, Einstein took up the idea, which leads him to invent what he called the curvature of space by the mass and energy of objects. Which has never been observed.
It is very difficult to imagine such a « curvature » in a limited volume or in any space, and imagine the counter-bends and other distortions. But it seems that until the end of his life he did not accept the idea of the attraction of a mass by another.

Currently, in the early 21st century, physicists still take into account the gravitational attraction of the masses, despite the negative results of all searches for a possible vector. Some scientists have come to regard it as a fundamental constant with a value based on that of certain places on Earth as it is essentially variable from one place to another.
No scientist has ever found a justification for an attraction between the galaxies and other space objects.

As mentioned in the previous chapter, why this attraction away from a mass by another did it not apply between electrons that are only mass?
It has been observed that the strength and limit of gravity on our planet varies from one place to another in the atmosphere depending on the place, due to the quality of nearby materials. It has never been possible to find a precise figure for the average force of gravity on our planet. It is not fixed, even if the variations are not very important.

In the space of objects, a particle, or other moving body may encounter an electron, free or already participant of a compound. There is entanglement or new displacement.
If there is new movement rays are able to:
— Either stay inside, immediately meeting other elements. They acquire greater importance, increasing its mass and gravity.
— Or move outwards in the freer space, with contacts faster or slower, other particles and compounds, forming gravitic clouds.

3,4 – Gravitic clouds

In the space of objects, a particle, or any other body that moves, may encounter an electron, free or already participating in a compound.

There is entanglement or relocation.

If there is a new movement, the rays can:

– Either stay inside, encountering immediately other elements. They become more important, increasing its mass and its gravity. It is the typical development of the stars.

Either go to the outside, in the more free space, with more or less rapid contacts, other particles and compounds.

They react as elsewhere, by reference or binding, modifying compounds and creating new radiations of particles and small objects more or less linked together.

Around the base compound, an accumulation of small compounds is formed, which form one or more fluctuating clouds. Depending on their composition and the possible circumstances – other radiation – some of these compounds can take a great development.

The compound and its clouds are separated or treated as such by the fact that they form different objects. This separation is not an envelope but it is a natural limit created by the rays tangent to one or the other object.
This explains the limits of objects in space, star, planet, into each other around other galaxies and star clusters.
These limits are not regular because the electron bonds always take place from their random contacts. They are not completely sealed. Thus in interstellar space galaxies, and in the said empty space of object between galaxies, one can find electrons and more or less important compounds, which can be the basis of new objects, stars and galaxies.
Can also move around so-called cosmic rays, gamma or X.

A « smoothing » of such limits never occurs; the particles and radiation, moving between objects bind with others where they are, at random, regardless of the forms of existing « limits ».
In these areas, physicists, technicians and researchers in Nanoscience and technology are faced with unforeseen difficulties which lead them to think that the atom, and other compounds, are of very different shapes and actions than compounds in a ball shape, which was assumed in physics for nearly a century.
We discuss the pre-matters below

The outer cloud decreases and disappears with distance. As long as it exists, it remains attached to the base body, depending on their respective masses and activity of radiation, corresponding to the thermic agitation. It is maintained and continuously renewed by the rays which come from the basic compound and particles of normal space, coming from varied more or less distant objects.
This cloud can be qualified as gravitic.

Gravitic clouds vary according to the average temperature of the surrounding medium. Thus small compounds have no procession particles forming gravitic clouds. They themselves have no substantial gravity and remain free independent elements.
These elements are difficult to quantify and similar compounds may have different gravitic clouds according to their environment. Which further increases the complexity of the components of materials. All other compounds or objects from a certain level up according to the number of electrons within them, to the largest bodies in space, galaxies and their clusters are surrounded by atmospheres that are their gravitic clouds and are always linked to the main body with their changing limits which depend on the density of elements in the surrounding medium.
These atmospheres are formed of particles of various compounds, elements from key objects and varying with developments and actions in the main objects near or distant.
They are of great importance in shaping planetary orbits around their star, and in the shape of galaxies as covered below .

According to the objects and circumstances, mainly their level of thermic agitation, the gravitic clouds, even of small objects can take great importance and clouds, neighbours in space, can intermingle and merge into one into another, resulting in more or less strong bonds between objects which form the cloud.
These are gravitic links.
They concern all bodies, compounds and objects such as, for example, the accretion of elements within the nebulae to form stars and other objects, to mergers  of galaxies and at our level in the matter of our planet, small electron compounds, atoms and the formation of very numerous and massive molecules or conglomerates of different materials.

In some cases, the gravitic link may facilitate the entanglement of the electrons of the compounds of gravitic clouds. This is the principle of catalysis: two compounds, which naturally get near each other with difficulty, can bind « graviticaly » at the same time to another; thus they get close enough and electrons can be entangled. Nothing changes for the « catalyst » which remains linked to the new compound formed graviticaly from the previous two. This phenomenon, which we, living beings on Earth, voluntarily use, could be of very common application in the natural changes of all compounds of matters of space objects.

3,5 – Magnism

We have just seen that the gravity and constituents radiation create a quasi envelope around all objects and materials, at different levels.
They can touch, thus forming more voluminous bodies or be separated from the other by a more or less large space. Between different materials and objects, some areas are established  which can be disrupted by radiation from objects. Observations are often difficult both to know the origin of radiation than the reasons and results of actions. Historically scholars have regarded them as electrical, magnetic or electromagnetic phenomena. In the 19th century Maxwell theorised them with mathematical equations, without explanation.

Électronisme theory states that there is never attraction of an electron or any other element by another.
Magnetism that describes this phenomenon, does not therefore exist.
Magnetic rocks and the magnetisation we find on Earth are not yet explained.
A recent study by laser specialists Australian researchers, Dr. Cyril and Vladlen Shvedov Hnatovsky led us to think that the phenomena they discovered and described, could guide our study of magnetism. They explain that radiation in the atmosphere near objects, could carry small particles along, which are therefore considered attracted by others.
Their theory can be supplemented by recent observations and particularly by the fact that the attraction or repulsion of objects still involve only light elements, for short distances, in the atmosphere.

With the latest scientific observations, we discover that these phenomena are not restricted to physical objects we perceive directly. Inside the objects, materials are created by many different bodies, with their gravity clouds more or less entangled, and other compounds that fit into the spaces between these clouds. Thus, there are many areas, more or less visible, between materials and objects with surface and interfaces manifestations within all objects, quite similar to those we easily observe outside.
We call magnisme all manifestations of matter in these fringe areas between all compounds and objects. Many are not directly perceivable by us and enhance the randomness of all the operations of electrons in materials and objects.
These are mainly the following events:
—  Adhesions, surface tension and capillary action.
— Static electricity and other electrical and electronic phenomena studied with semiconductors and superconductivity.

Current research in Nanoscience and technology make us discover some features that are of great importance in achieving artificial phenomena necessary for our activities as living beings on Earth.
It is remarkable that superconductivity at low temperature, manifests itself especially with materials including many different atoms which probably contain more free areas sensitive to magnisme.

The ‘magnic’ area of Earth, other planets and stars, corresponds to the limits of the atmosphere, with special areas such as:
—  The limit of winds of the Earth in those of our star, which creates, as it is observed, a protection belt against some cosmic radiation.
—  The areas between the atmosphere and outer materials of our globe, especially maritime areas and mountainous masses, with consequences for weather observations and the use of compasses and sextants for navigation.
—  The creation of clouds, tornadoes and cyclones, wet and dry.
— The possible influence of wind particles and groupings of objects in galaxies and other structures. This would explain how stars and their planets and other space objects are organised into galaxies and other clusters, by the actions of gravity as explained in our theory.
And we could attribute to magnisme the maintenance and evolution of these structures.

3,6 – Disturbances and Waves

In some cases, compounds or areas of materials can be relatively well limited and subject to particular actions. This is the case of electrons disturbances in the limited space thereof.
We have seen that when electrons bind and form compounds, there is a reduced volume relative to that of the separated electrons. This reduction of the volume of space electrons could create a vacuum in  space, or the entire space of the universe, or that of certain compounds. By their normal operation, electrons prevent it, by unusual movements, creating in the Ether of space, disturbances moving out at « speed of light » and are sensitive to us in two forms:

– Electromagnetic waves, which are their interpretation for our nervous systems, for sensations such as vision, smell, and probably many others, according to the categories of living beings;

– The so-called electromagnetic spectrum, of which all constitutive elements are unconsciously sensitive to all living beings according to their qualities, or have been « calibrated » for proper use by humans in particular.
These disturbances are created by the bonds of electrons in a certain area, and are « made »  by copying with other electrons groups exactly the frequencies of the phenomena that created them. They thus carry to the end of the universe, or more often of limited space of the phenomenon, all the information about them. They could be of great importance for pre-materials (see below).
We study this phenomenon in detail in the next chapter for light, also explaining the waves on a pond and tsunamis.

This phenomenon is very common in all materials and objects created by the connections of electrons.
We study this phenomenon in Chapter IV for light and Chapter VI for the motion of information in the nervous system of living beings.
In this chapter we evoke the creation of materials, particularly atoms and crystals. The full study will be resumed soon.
Our use of electricity on earth completely depends on this, what we show in Chapter V. This new theory could advance the study of electric systems and current, photovoltaics and supraconductivity.

3.7 – Rays and Thermic Agitation

In some areas, the formation of compounds or their increasing, creates more possibilities of contact between elements with the consequence of eiither forming many more connections between the electrons, or a further displacement of compounds which are radiation whose quantity is increased.
This is a local increase in thermic agitation, a phenomenon that grows and increases by itself, leading to another, that of the frequency of  realisation of the all the events.
Inside links may vary with the quality of contacts. The vibrations of electron compounds can be amplified or on the contrary reduced. Thus thermic agitation that we perceive as heat can vary greatly from one compound, material or object to another, without being bound by volume appearances or other benchmarks.

The fact is noted in the end 2014, in a study of phase changes in matter, which shows that « the disordered cluster grows from the outside in rather than from the inside out, as current explanations suggest, » (http://phys.org/news/2014-11-transitions-states-complicated-scientists.html).

If electrons meet and repel each other, the body apparently moves like a beam whose quality is that of the body itself. The compound itself « realises » its movement: the expansion of the body against the one with which it is in contact, causes its movement which continues until meeting another element.
Thus the rays are differentiated by their own qualities and those of the environment, where they meet various objects more or less numerous.

Free electrons move at the speed induced by the movement of their expansion, and we know this speed is instantaneous. The other body, firstly compounds and all most important objects, form rays of very different qualities, depending on the action of their vibrations within the compound. Some movements can neutralise each other; thus reducing the power of the external actions, while actions on each other are increased inside the compound. These actions are thus very varied. All values exist between the rays called gamma (they would be formed of a free proton), X, beta or other and larger compounds which move like rays. Technicians on Earth know how to use them according to their needs.

Here below, with studies of space objects, we noted that the material of the Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko is lighter and less dense than that of our planet. As if the condensation of the material, as will be explained here, was arrested, probably because of a too low temperature of the surrounding environment. While the material of the Earth, and all other objects, would have continued to condense for a number of billions of years.
This difference between the materials of Tchouri and earth also confirms slow and permanent changes inside objects, with increased gravity and the quality of matter itself. For large objects, this can last a very long time. On Earth and for our normal use of synthesis and other chemical phenomena, events are slower but exist permanently at our levels and duration of observations.

3,8 – Matter

3,8, a – Nanosciences and biology

Nanosciences are at the limit of the observations between disparate electrons compounds – that we do not know too well – and those involved in the creation of atoms, which are the basis of constituted matter.
Technicians, engineers and researchers, know how to handle the materials they need, particularly in the electrical, electronics and biology fields. It is their observations during their research that give us many indications about the qualities and functioning of the materials at atomic and molecular level.

For the first time in nearly a century in the history of physics of matter and objects, the ideas of physicists are beginning to change. A « Collaboration » between Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) and researchers of the subject, declares that the actual structure of matter is much more complicated than when (atoms) were treated as small spheres. April 2014 information.

Scientists use equipment that is continuously improving, especially microscopes (and nanoscopes) they adapt to their needs. Current observations provide very important information for the knowledge of the creation of matter and objects. In biology, researchers and technicians are familiar with proteins that are the main components of living matter. They describe them mainly  as flexible and multiple tapes nested or folded over themselves composed of atoms and molecules of varied shapes, able to permanently change by replacing small parts, modifying the qualities and actions in cells.
These structures could also exist in mineral matter.

3,8, b – Electrons and matter

The functioning of the electrons shows that all bonds, one after the other, form objects whose thermic agitation increases gradually as new connections take place to a certain level that results in their destruction.
Free electrons are round in shape, due to the way they operate. But from the first links in space or in matter at the temperature of our planet, without particular pressure, compounds have very different forms and may often look like packets of ribbons, or strings more or less linked to each other comparable to certain proteins of living beings.
We knew that electrons measure 10-18 meters and the average atoms as they are currently described would exist at the nanoscale level, about 10-10 meters. All physicists, in particular those of the Copenhagen School at the beginning of the 20th century, described the atoms without considering their composition, the elements, particles, compounds that could constitute them, whereas between electrons and atoms There are 8 « orders of magnitude »: one must go from the attometric level to the nanometric one.

There is an immense zone of creation of very diverse compounds of which we know absolutely nothing and which could correspond to the preparation of the materials that we know to be made up of atoms and molecules.

We can call this zone that of the « pre-matter ».

It could form an important part of physics.

It is an unknown sector of physics, whose study could have started with that of topological materials by physicists who obtained the Nobel Prize for physics in 2016.

There are many questions to ask such as:
= Using space waves in this pre-matter,
= Preparation of superconducting electrical conductivity,
= Links with the Standard Model of particles, quarks, fermions, bosons and others can be electron compounds, precursors of atoms,
= Connections with quantum physics,
= Etc.

3.8, c – The Atom

His study will be upset by that of pre-matter.

3,7, c – Atoms

All phenomena, explained in the opening paragraphs of this chapter are available for all compounds, of which the best known among the small objects, is the atom.
For two thousand years, it was considered as the main constituent of matter throughout the Universe. It has been described in different ways by many scientists, particularly in 1913 by Niels Bohr. After him others in quantum mechanics have studied and proposed overly complicated operations.
Very few researchers, physicists or chemists, were interested in its structures. Its spherical shape has never been questioned, and actual practical bonds between its components have not been studied.

With Électronisme, the atom is a normal compound of electrons, with the feature, for us living beings, that we can observe it almost directly, because of its size and the capacity of our current observational tools. It has another feature of being formed around a core created in a a different time, at a different place in matter.
It would consist – according to the generally accepted model – of a proton and neutron core, surrounded by gravitic clouds formed out of many electron compounds. All this creation could depend on disturbances of electrons in the inner space of gravitic cloud created around the nuclei consisted of protons and electrons.

This is a new idea (October 2016) and all that we explain below will be review and complete.
Protons are created in stars and other objects in space with very high thermic agitation. They could be almost ball-shaped, consisting of a specific number of electrons, which, according to their mass, should be close to 1836.
Neutrons, that resemble them, may not have been created in the stars, but in the nebula, at low temperature, at the beginning of the formation of matter. They break up into several small compounds, when separated from their atomic nucleus.

More protons are « fused » to form the core (nucleus). This fusion corresponds to entanglement bonds, more or fewer electrons constituting the protons with electrons. Proton fusion could be achieved in different ways depending on the circumstances, the number of protons and bound in special conditions that would give certain characteristics to the cores created and used to remake the materials.

It is currently considered by scientists that the core constitutes the largest part of the mass of the atom, and the « valence electrons » realise the connections between the cores for binding atoms in molecules. The gravitic clouds of components of the core are relatively large in terms of the number of electrons that constitute them. They thus fill a large volume of space around the cores, with strings or ribbons electron, more or less overlinked, depending on the variable thermic agitation, without change, to a certain extent, the quality forming atoms or those already formed.
They keep more or less long bonds direct connections with components of the core.
Links with additional free electrons or already participants in the compounds may be very important, preparing the phase change of the material created. The phase shift threshold may vary depending on the characteristics of the materials.

Atoms come in excessively varied shapes according to their creation, giving them very different qualities. Their structures oblige them to relatively precise links with others of the same qualities and with others with different qualities, to explain various molecules  pertaining to various materials.
These atom shapes and of other compounds begin to be recognised by researchers, particularly in Nanoscience.
Magnisme explained in the previous paragraph could be of great importance in the creation of atoms, molecules and additional compounds which are formed in the voids of the main compounds.

The cloudless nuclei in materials with high thermic agitation, such as plasmas, on Earth and in the stars and other objects in space are still named atoms.


3,8, d – Molecules and matter

In objects of space as long as thermic agitation is low enough not to turn matter into plasma, atoms and other compounds of electrons of a certain mass, are surrounded by gravitic clouds.
These gravitic clouds of nearby atoms can combine, forming various molecules of similar or different atoms, more or less stable in very specific conditions, which are still not sufficiently studied and probably depend on disruption of the internal space of gravitic clouds. In these combinations of atoms, further intricacies and « gravitic mergers » create relatively complicated structures. They resemble the mineral or organic polymers currently observed: tangled strands electrons compounds, more or less ‘overentangled’linking atoms and molecules.

We give the name of neomolecules, a term used in technical texts for groups of various molecules. They are studied particularly in Nanoscience. Macromolecules are polymers of similar chemical compounds and (single)  molecules  of similar atom groups. The connection of atoms with one another, alike or not, is always made by their nuclei. This results in more or less complete interpenetration of their gravitic clouds.
These links are not necessarily entanglements that would mean irreversibility with increased thermic agitation. The molecules created by interpenetration of gravitic clouds do not necessarily create increased thermic agitation, since there is no entanglement of electrons. They come apart easily.
The gravitic clouds of molecules are less bulky than those of separated components. During the creation of all molecules with the binding of nuclei, free electron compounds that may have specific uses are released.

We still have a lot to understand, such the more or less rapid formation of material known as amorphous or crystals that are realised in the forms that we  can  encourage with difficulty. This is the case for speeding up or slowing transformations of material, such as in catalysis, the slowing down of explosions or heat generation.
Recent observations suggest that in specific systems, relatively well-defined, electron bonds create disturbances of the available electrons ether, with transfer of information and new actions in this internal space. It is a phenomenon comparable to the transfer of information in the nervous systems of living things. Which would confirm that everything works the same way in living matter and mineral.

3,8,e – The Death of Stars, Matter and Living Beings

The creation of matter from the bonds of electrons explains the death of stars, by excessive thermic agitation.

In the Universe, all free objects and all those involved in the creation of other bodies in all matters have their « life » limited in the same way by increasing the thermic agitation which would be blocked by their environment. This would explain the forms and dimensions of all objects and the death of living beings, even if the excess thermic agitation is not manifested by a feeling of warmth.

3,9 – The Creation of objects in space

3,9,a – Observations of space

In this early 21st century, new observations with ever improved processes, enable us to see more and differently some structures and objects in space, casting doubt on previous theories. Since 2015, especially, even  the big bang and the expansion of the Universe are questioned by some physicists, which could result in a very different way of seeing the Universe and all physics.
In the year 2014, astronomers discovered that our Milky Way galaxy is part of a much larger structure called Laniakea. They simultaneously observed that problems of gravitational attraction, or gravity, within such a system could change the perception of the space expansion.
Which is confirmed by other recent observations. A team of researchers, led by astronomers from the Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory found that small galaxies’ satellites, around the « big », move like in rotating disks. We interpret them as areas of stellar winds that influence each other in galaxies.
Already in 2013, it was reported that the Andromeda galaxy was surrounded by a disk formed by a multitude of small dwarf galaxies. This structure, extremely flat, extends over a million light years and seems to revolve around the galaxy.
At the release of this information, the only technical comments indicated that « Newton gravitational attraction and Einstein’s theory of relativity may not be accurate”.

3,9,b – Galaxies

The gravitic cloud of objects could also explain that the orbits of planets around the Sun are all in the same plane, which was discovered in 2008. Wind particles, around stars and planets, match their gravitic clouds we explain here above. We may think that the first orbital plane of a planet around a star causes the other planets to move in the same orbital plane.
The shape of galaxies may depend on the same phenomena.
The volume of stars winds changes constantly as contacts more or less marked with those of near and remote stars in their galaxies. It is very understandable that stellar winds develop and move further in the area of the diameter of faster rotation of the stars, and the accumulation of all these flat atmospheres creates similar galaxies with growths of atmospheres formed by additional stars therein creating or agglomerating in different orientations.

Disturbances of the inner space of the different atmospheres could make objects even more difficult to understand.
Other recent astronomical observations, in intergalactic space, give images of more or less structured light clouds, forming the WHIM – an acronym of English words meaning Intergalactic Medium to high temperature -. They would consist of very scattered small elements and particles created from electrons of Ether in outside galaxy areas. They could form objects classified as orphans that are the beginning of new galaxies.

While most of the material of current objects are formed from atoms created in stars and other objects that have preceded them in space. This would correspond to the permanent and logical creation, in our theory, of new objects anywhere in the Ether of space.

But these « first » objects have a relatively short life because they would not have atoms, since protons and atomic nuclei are formed in the high thermic agitation of star, as explained above.

3,10 – Electron’ Life Cycle

By accident – called a singularity in physics – some electrons bound together, form compounds, some of which indestructible, creating stars and their planets, and other objects that are invisible to us. After billions of years, compounds reappear to us, scattered in vast nebulae and dark clouds in galaxies or free space objects.

It is an endless cycle of indestructible electrons. We’ll tell a possible version of this cycle, despite all the unknowns of what we see and do not yet understand, constantly evolving.

We start the description in a nebula.
There are very many nebulas in the galaxies, and probably outside them. These are huge expanses of clouds, with shifting boundaries, more or less transparent and difficult to observe because they are visible only under very specific conditions connected to their level of evolution and to the creation of perturbations in the Space Ether.
The observations of nebulae and other space objects also depends on the quality of our vision and complementary observations materials for radio frequencies, infra-red light and others to ultraviolet radiation, X or gamma.
These nebulae are usually composed of remains, very scattered, of stars and other objects in space, in the form of bodies that are visible only when sufficient activity is developing, that is to say that small compounds bind together creating disturbances of space; as we explain in the following chapters. Many zones are not visible and constitute mists or clouds of matter called dark or black.

All nebulae are different from each other and contain the « diluted » material, considered « dust and gas. » These terms do not correspond to what we know on Earth where they are ill defined elements of various materials.
The dust in the nebulae seems made of large particles and other bodies, like protons and atomic nuclei, not yet combined into matter.

In some areas, the temperature begins to rise, following slightly more numerous bonds of various compounds, triggered by radiation from other objects or electrons of the disturbances of space. Everything is still very scattered, but the objects are formed and move, increasing the links and movements.
A gravitational collapse is often given as responsible for the formation of stars in the nebulae. This is not right because there could not be any attraction of masses, as explained earlier in this chapter.

Radioactive material could be formed at this stage in the nebulae. They are at the basis of phenomena we study further, water (5.2, d) and the energy (5.3) we call ‘nuclear’, in chapter V.
Millions or billions of years after the « disappearance » of stars in clouds of un-constituted matter, nuclei coming from atoms from the previous objects begin the creation of a wide range of materials. In some areas, heavy and very heavy nuclei composed of many protons possess a relatively high gravity and can agglomerate with different atoms to form molecules surrounded by many compounds in large gravitic clouds. Since all the nuclei of these atoms are not « fused », they create various molecules and compounds which form clumps of easily fissionable material.
In the nebula, these «massives» are scattered throughout objects being formed. This was the case for our Sun, its planets and other objects.

All objects remain for a long time dependent on the temperature of the nebula and space of the galaxy where they exist. After the creation of the first objects, accretions of other bodies continue. Meetings of compounds of different sizes, moving in different directions, cause the rotation of some of them. Internal gravity increases by a continued series of bonds of various compounds. All these actions are carried out depending on the size of the element and the outside temperature that can stop the phenomena or otherwise accelerate them.
Current observations (2014 and 2015) of the comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, on which Rosetta laid the mini lab Philea, show matter that would be similar to that of Earth, but much lighter, as if there were much room between constituent compounds. We may think that the material of the (only) planet we really know, ours, would be made of the same material as the comet but was modified over a long period by a sequence of movements and other internal events, which we forecast in our study of the composition of matter in the present chapter.

We have also different categories of objects because their formation was stopped after varying times depending on the size of objects and the temperature of the environment:
— Asteroids, comets with a very different shape and a material whose evolution stopped fairly early,
— Generally spherical planets,
— Stars whose volume is very much larger than previous objects; their evolution depends on the material of which they are formed.

In stars, materials and their compounds continue groupings with electrons binding while creating at the same time an increase in thermic agitation. Initially, according to the materials, thermic agitation destroys the bonds of electrons while forming new compounds, which create a new increase of thermic agitation.
Heat increases again and the whole of material is converted into plasma, which becomes the non-matter of the whole object. In several billion years, new protons are created and many of them are merged into atomic nuclei, stably formed by entangled electrons.
Light waves reach us from bright stars during the main sequences. We only « see » the outer part that hides everything that happens inside where the temperature is much higher.

Thermic agitation increases continuously with the frequency of the electron bonds and therefore of the disturbances of space Ether electrons. At a certain level, our tools, vision and observation equipment, no longer allow us to see them. The stars are still there, but the frequencies of the disturbances are too high for our vision. We cannot see them, they have become a black space, a black hole for us.
These black holes are objects in which the electron links and  temperature continue to grow normally. They can become very large and their density can become very strong. The compounds can move no further. There are no more electron bonds and therefore no more increase of thermic agitation. They can hide other objects and grow by absorbing free electrons in space and stellar winds from other objects in the galaxy.
That’s then the real death of the star that has become a black hole.

With the reduction of electron bonds, the temperature decreases and, at a certain level, the object reappears to us, huge and very bright. That is a quasar, or other similar object that will evolve to be invisible to us again, turning into dark matter, dark clouds, in compounds what are «un-constituted» and incorporated in invisible but existing nebula.
This can last a very long time, billions or tens of billions of years, during which materials continue to change or fall apart slowly by the action of electron vibrations. It’s a long phase of in-constituted matter imperceptible for us. Objects break up and scatter in dark clouds, while their material begins to re-form new compounds. It is the evaporation observed by Stephen Hawking.
Then their «life» slowly returns, probably induced by electron disturbances in space, that may trigger new electron bonds. Clouds of black or dark matter then appear as nebulae of different colour according to the speed of their evolution, when the intricacies of electrons are realised at frequencies that make them visible to us.
Before this period of life, the nebulae could be perceptible to us by « radio » waves at lower frequencies than light. They could explain « the sounds of the depths of space, » instead of the diffuse cosmological background.
And so new stars are reborn!

The life cycle of an electron is completed. Another begins…

© – PhDardel – Updated 27th March 2017