Chapter V – Air, Water & Energy on Earth

On Earth, air and water are quasi-materials whose origin and qualities are explained. The energy used by living things is not yet well understood, especially current and electrical systems.

V –  Air, Water & Energy on Earth
5,1 – On Earth,
5,1,a – Matter, 5,1,b – Gravitic clouds,
5,1,c – Air, 5,1,d, – Water, 5,2 – The Sun’s Radiation,
5,3 – Nuclear Energy,
5,3,a – Theory, 5-3,b – Current Nuclear Energy, 5,3,c – Electric Plant,
5,4 – Electricity
5,4,a – Theory, 5.4,b – Systems, 5.4,c – Current, 5.4,d – Other Actions

5,1 – On  Earth

5,1,a – Matter

The matter of our Earth was constituted during the formation of stellar systems, 4.8 billion years ago. All atoms and molecules of different masses of matter existed at the time of the differentiation between our star and its small planets.

Since, in the Earth, there has never been a creation of new atoms and the matter has not evolved much.

The astrophysics observations show that, although the same rules are applied everywhere, trillions of objects that exist and are created continuously in space, are all made of different materials, with atoms and probably other various compounds of which we cannot imagine the existence and shape…

Some features are determined by the environments in which they are formed where they exist and evolve and renew themselves.

Our understanding of materials depends primarily on the way we see them. It is we, Human Beings, who classify and differentiate them and consider exotic all elements in our constituted matter that we do not know that much. We are allowed to think that those of our galaxy may have common features, whereas in other star clusters, near or far, elements that we cannot even imagine would form. From there sometimes a ray could reach us that we call a cosmic ray…

On Earth and in every object at medium temperature, matter is constituted, and is supposed to represent less than one percent of what is called matter in the observable Universe. This constituted matter exists only for a relatively very short period of the life of objects in space

Within our value system, we can distinguish different situations.

1 – The « cold » environments at a temperature below approximately 200 kelvins. This situation is mainly found in space, nebulae and other objects which are barely visible or not visible to us, containing widely scattered compounds or diluted materials. As we cannot see them, we know nothing about their values, amounts or simply if they exist.

2 – Moderate areas for us, living beings, where we live and we developed in a given range of thermic agitation – which we call heat – approximately between 200 and 2000 degrees Kelvin.

3 – Environments with a higher thermic agitation, continually increasing in its objects, like our Sun, The gravity also increases.

At certain levels of heat and gravity, important compounds are created. These materials are plasmas that have no tangible reality as we know it on our planet.

Matter consisting of atoms and molecules, as we know it on Earth and other planets exists only in a very small period of the life of objects in space, between the cold of relative vacuum of space and the glowing heat of the stars.

But we are allowed to think it is very important to us!

5,1,b – Atmospheres

The atmosphere of stars and planets corresponds to gravitic clouds of objects. In galaxies and other groupings of objects in space, the atmospheres between stellar systems are formed of similar winds much less dense of particles.

They consist of various small compounds. Their various features and peculiarities are dependent on movement and permanent modifications in the materials, creating the gravity of these objects. All the radiation of matter on the limits of these objects form their atmospheres.

Physicists know that the gravity in and around Earth varies with the qualities of the matter near the site of the measurement.

The shape of the gravitic field of our star depends on the particles winds around other large objects in our galaxy. Many other star systems exist in the space of our galaxy.

« Sunspots » we can observe on the Sun and all its granulations might correspond to particular gravitic environments, different from that of the complete one of the star. All events in these spots locally modify stellar winds with rapid repercussions on the winds and climate of the planets, in the whole solar system, and elsewhere in the galaxy.

5,1,c – Air

The air in our atmosphere corresponds to « winds of particles », as we have just explained.

This is a particular no constituted matter, existing in varying quantities in all the gravitic environment of Earth, up to the Earth’s magnetosphere, including, and this does not come as a surprise to us, in all the interstices of the solid matter of our  sphere, to the interior of all mines and natural deep galleries, including the chimneys of the deep seabed. Air always has the same composition in all those places, although oxygen or nitrogen act in the matter that seems to contain them.

Like other gravitic clouds around all objects in space, «Earth winds» are a mixture of atoms, reduced to their nucleus, and other very varied small compounds moving side by side and which, in the atmosphere or « on Earth » cannot naturally bind to others.

Different elements form inside the cloud more or less stable materials.

The influence of « sunspots » is transmitted to us through our atmosphere and that of the Sun.

Pollution in some areas of the atmosphere, by dust or soot or ozone, for example, is not moved by currents of the lower atmosphere, but by “planetary” winds, which concern the totality of the gravitic field of Earth, continuously influenced by solar wind.

5,1,d – Water

In our planet, and all the objects in our solar system, another important quasi-matter is to be considered differently from the said constituted material. This is water.

It exists mainly in liquid form.

It is present everywhere in quantities that are more or less large, especially in vapour form in « solid » material and in the air. Water vapour is not a gas, but a bursting of liquid water into fine droplets, which cannot turn into gas without dissociation of its components.

These droplets can be extremely fine. Would  these droplets correspond to molecules?

Water dissolves products without incorporating them and can dissociate them into their components without modifying them.

Water fills oceans, which account for 71% of the earth’s surface, but only 0.23% of its volume, because we know only the water which is present in the outer crust.

In early 2014, scientists have discovered that there is an « ocean » in the mantle between 400 and 600 kilometres deep. See below.

It is not present in nebulae. But it exists, a few billion years later, in the matter constituting planets. It therefore appears at some stage between the accretion of compounds in the nebulae and the planetary formation. Its origin is not yet well understood.

Électronisme Physics allows us to attempt an explanation.


Its creation

At the beginning of this chapter we have seen that the nuclei of atoms are formed in stars with high thermic agitation, before they turn into other objects, in which the formation of nuclei can continue. After passing through these objects and a number of billion years, these nuclei are found scattered in a nebula at low temperature.

In these nebulae, when the material begins to move and creates new compounds, nuclei reshape their gravitic clouds to complete the atoms. Among them, some particularly heavy ones, composed by numerous protons, have a significant gravity. They create major gravitic clouds and the created matter is considered easily fissile and radioactive.

At the same time are formed a certain number of neutrons, probably in connection with the creation of atoms as they never exist free in any type of matter.

In one of these nebulae a material is formed which has evolved into various objects like our Sun and its system including different objects, planets, comets and smaller other objects. The temperature of the mass of these objects increases, causing the destruction of certain bonds in the materials and especially in the molecules  formed of heavy atoms. As we saw they are readily fissile, like their gravitic clouds and nuclei.

Protons are released in the material and in the atmosphere around. Atoms are formed with broken nuclei and new gravitic clouds are formed.

Some of these free protons act as hydrogen nuclei, and bind to oxygen atoms present in the air. They form water vapour, made of water molecules which seem independent from each other, despite the molecular bonds that create large “bulk” or “masses of water”, solid, liquid or as vapour, passing from one stage to the next depending on  temperature.

In millions of years, much of fissile material mass in our planet is thus transformed into water.

This concerns mainly massifs located in the outer part of the Earth’s crust.

This phenomenon continues during the entire lifetime of the planet, depending on the external temperature, especially in proximity of the uranium masses. Easily fissile material (radioactive) inside the globe can be transformed into water depending on its environment, principally, depending on increases in temperature at the same time than having more contacts with the oxygen of the air.

This is probably how immense underground water reservoirs of very pure water have come into existence. These water tables were discovered in recent years mainly in Canada and in some areas of Africa where there are great massifs of uranium ore.

Hydro thermic high temperature springs springing in seabed could correspond to the formation of water from solid to easily fissile material massifs around volcanic chain structures located in marine shallows.

There exists, at a certain depth in our planet, a significant « ocean » whose creation could be related to the temperature of the planet.

The current increase in global temperature of the Earth consequently could create patches of almost – water – vapour in all areas where massifs of fissile material exist and could create an increase in the overall volume of « atmospheric rivers »

Meteorologists call “atmospheric rivers” bands of water vapour moving between one and ten kilometres in altitude in the troposphere. They are very movable and can be extended to several thousand kilometres.

They could be fuelled by ongoing transformations of fissile material.

Sometimes they provoke heavy rains with exceptional floods, anywhere in the world.
Quasi-matter

The water forms therefore a quasi-matter that exists in the other quasi-matter of the planet, the air of its atmosphere.

We can consider that water is dissolved in the air, with very large variations in concentrations due to the difference of gravity. This allows the formation of « massifs » of this quasi-matter in the air.

Water exists mainly in the liquid state, with a particular kind of bond between molecules. It thus forms a uniform material, with a density higher than that of air. It then fills the lower parts of the structure of the planet and compresses under its own weight.

Steam (water vapour) exists permanently with or without the presence of liquid water. The transition from one state to the other is easily achieved. It is always linked to temperature and relative to the state of the surrounding air.

It « evaporates » easily at the whim of the winds of the Earth.

It has a great importance in all weather phenomena.
Its peculiarities

  1. Water can be heated quickly, only in a container which limits the dispersion of its components. The increased thermic agitation comes from outside, and increases the relative shifting of all its elements of water and air.

In spite of the temperature augmentation, the relative density of the components air and water do not change. In an increasing thermic agitation, air elements are eliminated in the atmosphere, which is realised only in a fairly complicated process, because of the permanent presence of air.

Boiled water, cooled without movement, does not taste the same as running water, because it contains little air.

This also explains the variations of the boiling point, depending on the pressure in the surrounding environment.

2. At much higher temperature, the bonds in the water molecules are destroyed and gases, hydrogen and oxygen are released into the air where they already exist.

That explains:

Mtembo effect. It is an observed fact (and used by cooks): hot water freezes faster than cold water, when placed in contact with a source of cold. In the hottest water, the elements of water are mixed with more air, allowing a modification of the thermic agitation, the surface faster than the elements of water, tightly packed upon each other.

Supercooling. It is due to the same phenomenon and would be destroyed as soon as the motion changes the disposition of water and air molecules adjacent to each other.

  1. For the cold the situation is similar. Because of the large difference in density between water and air, all changes in the environmental temperature, air – water, have immediate consequences, even if these variations are not very large.

Cold influences matter when thermic agitation is decreasing that is to say when the displacement of the elements of a compound from its compound to another decreases. At a certain value, the water mass changes status, it becomes solid. This change applies only to water. The greater part of the air, around the water molecules, remains very free even if it still supports a certain quantity of water vapour.

At low temperature in the atmosphere, cold moves from the open air, outside, to water, by first reaching the surface particles that are lighter than the in depth particles.

This is why ice forms first in surface and as frozen molecules contain a certain amount of air, they are lighter than those in depth, and ice remains on the surface.

That is also the reason why they occupy a larger volume. This is found to be the case in closed containers, pipes in particular. This could be due to the fact that molecules are unable to move further, vibrating only one next to the other, occupying their full natural volume, like free electrons in the Ether of Space.

Formation of rain, snow and hail in the clouds in the atmosphere. It depends on the relative temperature of the water vapour, which will be more or less high in the movement of air. Frequent supercooling of the water vapour in clouds is destroyed by different air movement.

External elements, primers or condensation nuclei, are not useful for triggering these events in the clouds.

Air pollution above cities worldwide turns mist into « smog », not into rain.

In very many countries for several decades, tests on products dispersed into clouds to prevent hail and cause rains never give conclusive results.

Formation or gathering of electrical charges in clouds with creation of systems and circuits that are manifested by movements or discharges.

They are accompanied by lightning and thunder. These phenomena should be studied further since that could help us understand « our » electricity.

It would be also useful to include the ‘will-o’-the-wisp’ (ghost light) and other events that seem to occur more frequently in humid atmospheres.


5,2 – The Sun’s Radiations

On Earth, we receive radiations originating from the Sun.

The main two types for us living beings are heat and light. These are different phenomena. They are related for us only because they affect us together when « the Sun is up », but the heat comes to us only an hour, approximately, after the light.

Heat is created by electron links that bind together to form progressively larger compounds, up to protons and their fusion into atomic nuclei that happened only inside the stars.

The heat that concerns us comes from the outer part of the star, and spreads throughout the entire solar system. It arrives to us on Earth in about an hour, by convection at a speed of 7 to 900 kilometres per second, through the elements of solar winds, then through the Earth’s atmosphere.

It is our distance from our star that determines the heat we receive.

Life, whose origin we do not know, was originated and evolved based on this temperature. Changes, even small, like those we currently fear such as global warming, could well hinder or worse, the existence of all or almost all living beings.

Light is equally a consequence of very numerous entanglements of electrons in a certain period in the life of the star (main sequence) forming disturbances of space at frequencies that living beings have learned use.

« Light » waves reach us…. at light speed, in about eight minutes from the outer regions of the star, where entanglements of electrons take place at frequencies corresponding to these waves, called ‘luminous’or ‘light’carrying for some living beings.

The electrons of the space waves allow us to create the lighting environment. The images are formed by our nervous system that interprets the information provided by the « light rays » remaining after refraction and absorption by them on surrounding objects.
5,3 – Nuclear Energy

5,3,a – Theory

The current exploitation of what we know as nuclear energy is based on observations made in the middle of the 20th century. They appeared to show that the fission of the nuclei of radioactive material produced heat. This operation would  produce elements with lighter nuclei, still more or less radioactive, and some heat, whose amount was estimated using formulas like Einstein’s E = mc2, that were rather approximate.

All phenomena are currently being explained by the early 20th century physics, mixing the « chemistry » of the Mendeleev elements table, with equations of protons and neutrons manipulated with different forces of Standard Model of particles and  with quantum mechanics.

The observations seem misinterpreted because it is difficult to determine if the heat is due to:

– The breaking of atoms of radioactive materials, as interpreted by the current physicists; or

– The creation immediately afterwards – almost simultaneously – of new compounds with elements coming from this breaking, as explained in Chapter III.

In ordinary chemistry on Earth, changes and destruction of compounds are difficult, if not impossible, and are always endothermic.

All-bonds-intricacies are indestructible.

A relative increase in heat can help to break gravitic links.

All syntheses or chemical compositions, including electron bonds are exothermic.

During the creation of our planet, many masses of fissile material were created, as we explain earlier in the text above in paragraph 1.11,c (the electron cycle), in Chapter I.

Thereafter, some are degraded by an increase of environmental thermic agitation that destroys gravitic bonds, then everything continues as in the case of Nuclear plants covered below.

Everywhere on our planet, disintegrations take place all the time, without stopping, that are perceptible to us by their emission of radon gas.

Others turned into water, as explained in section 5,1,d, earlier in this text.

Some, on the surface of our planet, are exploited for our nuclear power.

In the mines, the uranium material that contains easily fissile elements in very small quantities, is concentrated for uranium and transported as « Yellow Cake » to the plants where it is used.

5,3,b – Current Nuclear Energy

In « nuclear plants », the exploitation of radio active material starts with the preparation, from the yellow concentrate, of bars of « fuel », adapted to the needs of the  equipment.

For the operation of the plant, these bars are lowered into tanks filled with water (pressurised or not) where they come into contact with neutrons and small free compounds existing in water and the air from the tank.

Links are realised immediately between electrons of compounds from neutrons, and the free compounds in the tank.

They lead to a first increase in the thermic agitation which triggers the entire operation.

We saw in Chapter III, that the formation of compounds by binding together of atoms  that are different or of the same type, releases elements of gravitic clouds which come together: the gravitic clouds of the compounds are always smaller than the sum of those components.

This thermic agitation is a supply of charges for heavy elements that were « broken » in 2 (or 3) main pieces and many small ones.

The pieces seem predetermined. They certainly correspond to pre-nuclei of atoms created in stars at end of their life

The released compounds, and those of the atoms gravitic clouds existing in the tank, immediately bind with free or not elements of the fuel, creating new compounds that are radioactive by-products (undesirable) and cause a second and strong increase in thermic agitation.

It is the production of heat, which is sought.

It is transported into no « nuclear » areas of the plant and used for mechanical movements which cause electric generators to function. See section 5.4, here below, concerning electricity.

According to these explanations, the heat is therefore not produced by the fission of heavy atoms, but by the links, just after, to create or modify compounds.

Could this be the process called cold fusion or LENR (English: Low Energy Nuclear Reactions)?

5,3,c – Nuclear (and thermic) Electric Plant

Currently, all thermic (combustion) and nuclear power plants that generate electricity operate on the same principle:

  1. Performing one or more chemical syntheses of elements to create heat, and all-together forming as well useable or undesirable by-products.
  2. The heat is converted into mechanical movements,
  3. To turn a generator,
  4. And pick up the “electrical charges” in the air to in-put them in electric systems.

It would be useful to try to remove the phases 2 and 3, by creating in phase 1 of molecules of products that are not (too) undesirable AND free compounds otherwise called “electric current” that are created directly in the electrical systems.

It would, according to what we describe below for electricity, to place in the tank of the nuclear plant, a generator rotor – or similar device – which would be fixed, built-in « electrical system » and able to provide free electron or already compounds of components to be transferred by disturbances of the internal space of the electrical system, to the user system.
5.4 – Electricity

5.4,a – Theory

In the Universe, and therefore on Earth, all events, creations or transformations of materials and objects are achieved by electron bonds, free or already participating in compounds of materials, following contacts, as explained in previous chapters.

Electricity is this ‘possibility of action’for all free elements of the Universe in the space free of objects and in materials and atmospheres pertaining to these objects.

It always exists for all electrons and objects in the Universe, without special features or special provisions in these elements. No force or energy is associated or necessary to the electrons to bind.

It has no particular force and its action is always adapted to the volumes and other qualities of compounds in contact. Electricity is in the same way, suitable for transistor, handheld gadget or high voltage transmission and use of « energy. »

It leads always and at all levels of importance of the matter, the realization of all phenomena explained in previous chapters:

– Disturbances of electrons in space and creating waves used immediately for their operation,

– Increasing the thermic agitation, with modification of the movements of electrons and free compounds,

  • Gravity in all compounds, with gravitic clouds and atmosphere around all objects.

5.4,b – Electric systems

These are areas in which an electric current is created, and appears to move between multiple tools at least together a user and a ‘supplier’ of electrons (electric charge =).

These zones are well defined and isolated electrically, allowing free movement of electrons disturbances of the internal space. They exist from the smallest structures like single molecule of an electronic component, to larger volumes, load and size of their zone of action.

Tools are varied depending on the quality of the materials forming them and the work required.

5.4,c – Electric Current

It is a phenomenon that creates a job in a specific location.

This work is always an electron binding components specific objects connected to the electrical system.

In an ‘electrical system’always exist the following places or objects, specific:

– Supplier of « charges », generator or battery;

– User which has to perform the work involved: lighting, heating, telecommunications, motion, …

It must transfer the charges of the provider to the user.

This operation is performed by electrons disturbances in the internal space of the electric system:

– When a user is logged into the system, it is ready to receive an electron or free compound for one or more links that realize the work required; sometimes it takes an « instigator » (starter).

– These connections create disturbances electrons from the internal space of the electric system: « Electromagnetic waves » as called.

– They move in the internal space and meet suppliers of charges corresponding to their qualifications, ie those of the user;

– They immediately create new disturbance-waves that carry the information to the user, and the phenomenon is repeated.

All happen at the speed of light, but the connections of the electrons are not always immediate (hysteresis).

This operation explains different phenomena:

– It is the user tool that triggers the action; use before the filing of charges;

– The charge of « battery » or other power suppliers is never scattered in the electrical system; the charge left in the battery;

– In the circuit or electrical system, only move the free electrons, – larger or smaller in number -, disruption of the internal space; it allows us to understand the qualities required for superconducting systems.

All operation is to study more fully.

5.4, d – Special cases.

Photovoltaic

Our theoretical explanation shows that in this technique the charges supplied (waves « visible » space) does not always match the needs of the user tool.

To try to know if the use of photovoltaics would be improved with:

– Permanent use of a battery suitable for frequencies of light, rather than the needs of the use;

– Good insulation complete the entire system (?).

Superconductivity

It is a difficult problem because the electrical phenomenon still exists when electrons are in contact, for example those of the « electricity » that is to say disturbances of the internal space of the system; and those of the electrical insulated system.

Electronic components, diodes …

Transistors, diodes and many other electronics devices are explained by basic phenomena of electricity in power systems consist of the component itself, and the balance of entropy in all relevant areas.

Clouds storm, hurricanes and other natural events

Our theory best explains the accumulation of « electric charges » in the storm clouds.

Does the knowledge of the limits of power systems dry or wet cyclones would better understand and explore interventions?

© Philippe Dardel – October 2016