Chapter VI – Life on Earth

The origin of Life on Earth is not yet explained, whereas living beings are all constituted as mineral matter. They all have external links and more or less complicated nervous systems and information transfers using space disturbances. Phantoms signs are not yet explained.

VI  –  Life on Earth
6,1 The Origin of Life, 6,2 – The Features of Life,
6,3 – Organs and organisms,
6,4 – The Nervous System,
6,4,a – Different systems, 6,4,b – The Action Potential,
6,4,c – The Nervous influx, 6,4,d – The Senses, 6,4,e – Other actions,
6,4,f – Ghost Signs,
6,5 – Life in Society


6,1
 – The Origin of Life

The latest hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth bring into play specific elements present in the space of our galaxy. Their molecules are close to the molecules of carbon compounds, and close to organic, mineral, matter on Earth, whether dead or or living.

Life on our planet has appeared in locations distant from each other, with no connection between them. According to some current observations, microbial life was already flourishing and quite widespread, 3.5 billions years ago, or a billion years after the formation of the Sun and its planets..

The first living cells, usually grouped in colonies, seem to have been alike. They probably originate from the same compound that could have be created, have grown and multiplied in the matter that was being formed in order to create the whole solar system.

What follows is one possible explanation, among many others, for the development of life on Earth.

In the nebula in which the solar system was forming, a particular compound or an unusual new molecule might have existed—probably created within a previous object in our galaxy, star or otherwise, or constituted inside this nebula—forming a small unusual body…

We find it very difficult to imagine and we call it Life.

By an abnormality, it would have multiplied itself in elements like itself, and these new elements would have dispersed in materials that were being formed. Many examples of this Life-object might then have been found in many bodies, including the Sun and its planets. On our planet Earth, they could have been able to maintain themselves and then develop all the way up to us, given particular environmental conditions, such as water and oxygen, in the external areas of our planet. These early Life objects might still exist in the deeper layers of our Earth, probably in different forms.

Astronomers will one day probably find signs of life on all the planets in our solar system, as they have recently found on Mars and lately on Titan, a moon of Saturn. With the discovery, which was to be expected, of planets around all stars in our galaxy—and in others—it is very possible that Life particles existed and still exist in some of them.

It is not the presence of conditions that now seem to us favourable to life as we know it on Earth, which determined its installation on our planet. A particular Life cell came across to our planet randomly, as it may have done, and probably has done, elsewhere in the Universe and it developed according to the conditions that it encountered.

« Life » comparable to ours could therefore exist anywhere on our planet or in other stellar systems. It would be visible or identifiable on the surface of space objects or within certain materials. But only groups of cells under specific conditions could develop, adapting to the environment. The environment in question is not necessarily essentially oxygen and water, but could be quite different media, as shown by some extremophile organisms that are installed on Earth in unusual environments compared to life as we know it.

Even if there were somewhere a life almost similar to ours, considering which cell Life we come from, with an evolution of 4.8 billion years,- and closer to us that of modern man, appeared 200,000 years ago – it is not reasonable to think that we could meet one day living beings in a stage of development allowing mutual understanding.

How were human beings, 2 billion years ago?

Could we understand a man coming from some 20 thousand years ago, or living at 20 or 20 thousand years light from us?

6,2 – The features of the Life

It is difficult to determine what differentiates inert matter from that of the living beings. Among the peculiarities of it, identified by philosophers, we retain self-reproduction, a faculty for all living individuals to create others like them.

But it is not certain that this characteristic is specific to life. Some current observations in nano sciences show some reflex natural reproductions or reflex « reparations » in certain mineral neo-molecules.

Another feature of living matter is that all living organs and organisms are surrounded by an envelope, participating in their functioning, involved in the development of certain phenomena.

All compounds of mineral organic matter, as well as all the other elements, the cristallogenic elements in particular, have structures that can suggest a skeleton or shell or a more or less solid envelope. These structures give them characteristics that are the subject of special studies in the field of nano science.

However, in our current observations, none of these mineral structures, even those structures that contain other structures, participate in their own modifications.

The substance of living beings is created and evolves exactly like all other materials in the Universe, with the same phenomena and the same rules, even if the envelopes of organs and organisms create unusual events and objects.

6,3 – Organs and Organisms

The outer envelopes of living beings, skin, peel, membrane, shell, or other, serve to protect them and limit their environment. Their permeability to internal or external elements, physical or seemingly intangible elements, is highly variable, from an individual to another, according to classes or species.

We can consider as an organism, a group of unicellular individuals, enough pressed tight together to avoid any way or contact with outside except those necessary to their existence.

It was probably from those agglomerates that multicellular organisms began.

Inside the organisms, envelopes or membranes surround all the organs, different each from others by their matters or functions. They are often inside each other, and interact.

The contacts of the living beings with their outside happen in two ways:

  • Physical actions, that seem easy to observe, for ingesting food and air and for evacuating products of dis-assimilation and proteins destroyed during internal functioning of organs.
  • By their senses, which allow the coming into the organisms of all the events from their environment, with sensations for sounds or noise, odours, vision, touch…
  • We will see below, § 6.4, d, that a selective permeability could exist in outer envelopes, enabling valuable or accessories connections of these organisms, of the same genera or animal or plant kingdoms without clear separation. Thus plants and animals can cooperate in their defence or development.

The envelopes and membranes could be considered as a part of the cytoskeleton of the cells of all living beings.

6,4 – Nervous Systems

6,4,a – Different systems

All operations of life are similar in all living organisms, some of which are much more complicated than others. But the level of complexity is difficult to define, as well as the differentiation between the 3 kingdoms, animal, vegetable and mineral.

Is a plant body that has memory, reflexes and centralised actions, without brain, less complex than an animal that seems to think or a colony of bacteria that seems to choose its food?

We shall study here-below the nervous systems of living creatures called superior. Other organisms are provided with simpler devices with relatively comparable results.

All events in the life of all individuals, considered as being alive, and in their organs are dependent on a nervous system – even without visible physical elements such as neurons – in which all actions stem from each other without any choice or program.

The system can be reduced to a more or less important specialised network of specialised proteins whose permanent changes may be due to disturbances of the internal space. This is particularly the case for more complex (superior) plants for which any bark injury happening to it must be repaired quickly.

Physiologists who are specialised in plants know the phenomena of information transfer between vegetal elements located at a more or less distant point, but do not seem to explain them yet. Important connections seem to exist in the soil between the plant and animal, fungi, insects organisms, for example.

A nervous system usually consists of cells of very variable size, of neurones, with their various extensions, such as dendrites, synapses and other structures still not well understood such as nodes and the brain.

In our study we completely separate the action potential and nerve impulses, considering that:

  • The action potential is the material part of the nervous system, ensuring its vital maintenance,
  • The nerve impulses are the way the system itself functions, particularly the transmission of signals for actions at all levels.

6,4,b – The action potential

It corresponds to the material component of neurones with proteins that allow the functioning of nerve impulses.

This is the « vegetative » system of the neurones and glial cells and the whole system, with, for example, the assimilation of molecules conveyed by nutrients, based on changes or creations of proteins and the need to evacuate those destroyed by the normal operation in the entire system.

The modifications of value of different ions in the cytoplasm of nerve cells, are regulated by variations in the selective permeability of plasma membranes, induced by the nutrients and the disturbances within the internal space through the nervous influx.

This is why the quality of the nutrients can be relevant in the organs, in spite of all the changes they undergo before reaching the cells.

6,4,c – The Nervous influx

It’s a seemingly immaterial part, using proteins of neurones and the disturbance of electrons of the inner space of the entire nervous system.

Overall, its functioning is already well known but no explanation is given as to the practical realisation of protein modification following the transmission of information by the senses, or other neurones in the internal nervous system.

Research is intense in this field and new ideas have appeared in recent years in connection with the « brain waves » used since the 1930s for electrical measurements in conjunction with health problems or a very varied range of research.

We offer below a mode of action, similar to that of waves in the space, which helps to explain and justify the perturbation waves existing in the internal space of all living beings with an apparent nervous system. They could also exist in other living organisms.

Sensations or « sense » are the contacts, some appearing intangible, of living organisms with their environment and surroundings. We explain these in detail here below.

It is through them that information enters organisms.

This information is collected in the external environment by the special extremities of the nervous systems. They are dendrites composed of very numerous small proteins, modified continuously by electrons, free or already connected to others, and particularly those of disturbances of space, such as the « light waves », concerning the optic nerve. See Chapter IV.

For example, with respect to vision, the electrons of the disturbances of space, – the Sun light, after being partially absorbed, and returned by reflection on the object, therefore what remains after reflection – come into contact with proteins of the dendrites of the retina. Some are modified or newly created and at the same time new disturbances and waves in the interior of the nervous system and organs are formed.

There could be a long series of modifications of proteins and thus a series of disturbances with various uninterrupted activities, despite the independence of all events.

New space disturbances are created only if the modifications of proteins correspond to a certain volume of electrons.

These waves have specific frequencies, different of those of the Ether of space generally.

They relate to the internal space of the organisms up to their outer envelope and would therefore always be specific to each living being bounded by its outer envelope.

They move more or less far in the organs concerned, according to:

  • The importance or the « strength » of the signal, which could concern the whole body or only a few cells or organs more or less distant from the point of creation of the signal.
  • The quality of the envelope of organs, or nervous sites such as the brain, which, for vision, recognises images registered or creates new ones.

All operations are carried out instantly but still one after the other, depending on the importance of modifications of proteins involved in precise specific sites or specific systems, with important synapses interventions that could carry the particularities of the genome.

Proteins of the cells are permanently changed. These are accumulations of amino acids with a very short life duration and are reconstituted immediately with elements of destroyed peptides, modified by disturbances of the internal space according to their importance.

Only significant events, – at different levels – coming from dendrites, synapses, or other places of the creation or modification of compounds may affect and modify proteins in more or less numerous organs or cells.

Disturbances, and information, always move at the speed of light, with more or less great participation of the hysteresis, because of the very large diversity of the range of proteins.

Recent ideas and discoveries could be a first step towards this theory of information transfer in nervous systems by disturbances of the internal space of organs and organisms.

In early 2014, a team from the “University of Freiburg” and of the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) in Gif-sur-Yvette » studied the movement of a « resonance » that could be responsible for the transfer of information into nerve impulses.

This resonance corresponds to such disturbances recovered, partially or otherwise, by changes in protein ready to receive them.

All these provisions could suggest that all systems are similar. However, as we have seen from the first chapter of this essay, all events are always randomly performed in systems which are, in turn, already randomly constituted in the first place.

The presence of some elements may be accidental and in this case lead to specific events, materials or sometimes apparently psychological.

6,4,d – The Senses

From the beginning of their presence on Earth, and during many billions years of evolution, all living beings have created for themselves tools to facilitate and guarantee their material life and to use the phenomena of their environment for more or less important or necessary functions. We are far from knowing all of them yet.

All the contacts or « connections » between living beings and their environment are realised through these envelopes by their « senses. »

Touch seems necessary for all living organisms, while the sense of taste is unique to some. Sight, smell, hearing are phenomena carried by space waves, and atmospheric waves, and are more or less developed depending on the individuals. Other relevant waves for some other organisms may exist, radio waves, for example, whose frequency of disturbance are similar to the waves called olfactory and luminous.

All the senses are « exploited » in the same way inside bodies, by nervous systems, centralised or not. But according to the organisms’ needs, the waves of space can be used for different phenomena that can vary from one type of organism to another.

For example, so called light waves are used by « superior » (more complex) animals for sight thanks to their eyes, but plants and other organisms which do not possess any « ocular » tools, could still be using those same waves for some phenomena whose consequences are similar.

This is how an ivy ‘sees’ the wall, a little further away, on which it is going to climb with roots that it prepares the correct side and the sunflower turns towards the Sun!

Current studies by the Teams of Pr Steven Lockley, Brigham and Women’s Hospital of Boston and of the Université de Montréal, show that… “Light doesn’t just allow us to see objects and the environment, it tells the brain whether it is night or day which in turn ensures that our physiology, metabolism and behaviour are synchronised with temporal fluctuations our “environment”.

“For diurnal species like ours, light stimulates day-like brain activity, improving alertness and mood, and enhancing performance on many cognitive tasks,” explained senior co-author Julie Carrier. “This theory may explain why the brain’s performance is improved when light is present during tasks.”

The researchers also show that light stimulates brain activity during a cognitive task even in blind people. It would be interesting to know which nerve endings are in charge of transmitting information to specialised sites in the brain that detect this activity.

Studies in Canada have shown that plants are sensitive to music.

Numerous other recent searches and observations identify varied phenomena with environmental influences on the behaviour of plants and other organisms without differentiated nervous systems. The life of these living beings is organised with many phenomena and devices that we believe are normally reserved for living « superior » beings, such as touch, light, smells, sounds, memories and even apparent choices!

Colonies of unicellular protozoa might perhaps have the sense of touch, and contacts would allow the functioning in them, as explained above, of a primitive nervous system.

For smells and sounds, there are probably different levels of formation, movement and detection, depending respectively one on the Ether of space and the other on the surrounding environment, with air as its main component.

As far as smell is concerned, an important part could be conducted as for vision, with waves of disturbances of space generated by creations or modifications of compounds.

Scientists have just discovered (in early 2011) that the smell of odour molecules is modified by variations in their shape. These modifications can cause disturbances of the electrons of the Ether of space—by electron entanglement or other connections of compounds in the « aromatic » molecules—with a diffusion and a perception that can take place at a more or less close or far range, according to the quality of molecules and receptors. We should be able to position them in the overall spectrum of perturbations of space. They could be located in the sub-millimetre band waves, not well known and close to the infrared and light waves, which are perceptible by living beings.

The latest observations, in particular the importance of nostrils in the orientation of pigeons, or dissemination of pheromones by sparrows, allow us to explain very numerous phenomena.

For their migration numerous living beings seem to be attracted and guided by odours emanating from « places » of destination, at more or less precise times in their lives. The hibernation of mammals and other terrestrial animals may be decided by the « smell of the seasons, » both for the beginning and for the waking up at the end, while individuals are still « asleep ».

It would be interesting and useful to know the importance of odours in the lives of butterflies and other insects, especially those who live within a society, or partially in the ground and their hosts they might parasite or not.

Marine animals, such as turtles, eels, salmon, and perhaps the great cetaceans might be guided by smell, despite the presence of the marine environment which only has a small influence on disturbances and waves of space.

But there could also exist a different and complementary process concerning, among other phenomena, the « odour trails » with the sense of smell of some living organisms or short range odours, carried in the air of the atmosphere.

The sense of hearing is not very different.

Sound waves could be of two kinds. Disturbance of the atmosphere moving at the « speed of sound » like waves of the vibrations of the air, and a more general mechanism involving the disruption of space at particular frequencies.

Is the guiding system of bats sound driven or is it similar to radio interference or radar waves?

The current scientific evidence may let us think «the five senses» could derive, or have evolved from the touch which could be the first sensation or use of their environment by colonies of primitive unicellular organisms.

6.4,e – Other actions

These perturbations of the internal space of the organs and organisms could explain the replication of genetic material, keeping in mind that everything is done very quickly when the necessary conditions, – that we do not know – are met, even for chromosomes and all the DNA.

In vitro studies are very important for all physiologists, biologists and other researchers concerned with the phenomena of life. They work on samples, larger or smaller parts of organisms, using materials and techniques that they are able to invent and adapt.

But it is possible that some samples will lack the inductor signals brought by disturbances of general space coupled with the internal space of organs or organisms that transmit information from one site to one or more others, controlling the entire system.

This is probably one of the reasons why animal experimentation in laboratories is required.

In the same vein, could it be that some unusual envelopes of organs within organisms -—or lack of them—may cause defects and malfunctions appearing as diseases?

The inheritance of acquired characteristics can be explained in the same way, repeated peculiarities are incorporated more or less quickly in the proteins that make up the genome.

A similar phenomenon is that of learning. The repetition of actions by limbs or by other organs creates some reflex “memory-sites” that may exist for a long time, and be reactivated after long periods of pause or suspension. This concerns both the learning of physical gestures, sports, the use of instruments, and intellectual activities, and we can add all those activities of ordinary life that are properly working and effective only if the information for the operational functioning is transmitted almost instantly from one neurone to the others with the reactions of memories sites, reflexes and effectors. For example, it is the feet touching the ground, who communicate to the knees how to walk and the information received by the dendrites of the optic nerve are interpreted by the memory sites to create images for us.

6.4,f – Ghost Signs

Our amazing discovery of «Ghost Signs», not yet explained, could confirm the phenomena detailed above.

By carefully looking at an area free of objects and of a solid colour, paper, a smooth wall, various objects, after a few seconds, « I » see lines of text or drawings of very fine shapes, irregular and moving, a little dark or bright. Everything is sometimes visible or barely perceptible, but always there.

The letters are in constant motion as if the words changed, which prevents reading the texts.

Watched through a magnifying glass, letters and drawings are not changed, but the lens does not enlarge them, as it does for objects around, as if the written lines and signs were insensitive to the magnifying glass, or were between the lens and the eye.

I see them everywhere and even in the stain of my AMD (Age related Macular Degeneration).

It would therefore not be the eyes that see these images!

Everyone can see them. But nobody notices them, probably because they

know, or we think we know, they could be linked to the functioning of the eye…

In recent years, research has shown that the sense of touch is the only one to act within the bodies of living beings. Attributes such as the eyes, nose or tongue are accessories to this sense.

Ghost Signs, lines of text or drawings appear as a visualisation of internal disturbances and letters and words might correspond to thoughts that vary constantly, until an unconscious decision modifies an effector or memory site. The recordings appear not to be made immediately, as if to wait for reflection. Which would confirm that thoughts, like all intellectual acts, are only purely material…

These remarks may seem unrealistic like the fact of believing that we see these disturbances in Ghost Signs…

This would confirm the transfer of all information – even that in progress of being created – by disturbances of the ether of the internal space of the organs and organisms.

Ghost Signs might correspond to particles created in the inner space of organs and around, at their outer limit, to determine this limit, that may vary with the quality of materials.

Similarly that are created all bodies and objects – along with internal gravity – as explained in Chapter III.

Variations of small proteins in organs and organisms would form around them a small gravitic cloud, like the atmosphere around objects.

Ghost Signs do not vary immediately according to activities. That could be the beginning of an explanation of how a quasi nervous system could act in plants and other living things.
6,5 – Life in Society

Touch is a very important sense or tool in the social life of all persons, human and others, belonging to the animal kingdom including insects, especially those that live in colonies.

The imposition of hands is an act that exists within all human groups, and probably corresponds to observations dating back from the beginning of the creation of human beings.

Researchers on vital energy such as Franz-Anton Mesmer, followers of acupuncture or relaxation therapy and other healers should not be regarded as charlatans; there is no fluid, « animal magnetism » or positive or negative energy, but probably specific skills in the permeability of the envelopes of organisms. In 2012, studies of mind controlled games could be an application of these phenomena with the use of headphones creating a communication between the inside and outside of organisms.

Contact between the mucous membranes of certain individuals could be the basis for important social organisations.

Kissing and sexual activity are of great value, apart from the satisfaction of pleasure and reproduction. Frequent and particular contacts, through the mucous membranes, help social relations between partners to evolve.

Some current research shows the value of physical contact between a mother and her child.

Physically, spirit does not exist.

It is a way of using, consciously or not, by living beings, differently according to individuals, very numerous sites of the nervous system. This physiological entity brings closer together some specific phenomena participating in the activities of living beings, aware or not of the presence of this spirit.

Its creation is based on the biological evolution of the formation of individuals since the presence of the first cell of life. Then, in billions of years of evolution, repeated phenomena have created reflexes and memories that would be the beginnings of what we now call the mind.

Some complex living beings, called superior, have created special organs, such as the brain, the nerve ganglia, which gather together the reactions to external and internal events.

Multiple proteins that form the tissues of these sites and all sensitive elements have evolved without any directed intervention, not even directed by the spirit itself, as it goes along while it creates itself. It is also possible that at some point, biological evolution has been guided by decisions that seem conscious, taken by the spirit that was in the process of forming.

The intelligence of some living beings is created exactly as their mind/spirit. It is a specialisation, innate or acquired, involving mainly memory and speed of action, whether they reflex or not, physical or intellectual.

The « form » of the spirit is linked to permanent modifications in synaptic proteins and of other specialised sites, which could be proved by various phenomena including the following three:

  • Studies showing the unreliability of memory,
  • The fact that some newborns of complex organisms already possess at birth a complete nervous system with specific sites that react to events happening from birth,
  • The difficulty, if not the current impossibility to create with a computer an intelligence that would be comparable to the intelligence of living beings. Memories necessary to deduction, are important to digital and information technology. These are less reliable, but much more finely tuned, for living beings.

Artificial Intelligence will never give a doubt or a smile that make us move a step forward.

We must therefore consider that all the phenomena that lead to the formation of the spirit are realised without any intervention of this spirit, even for us human beings. It seems difficult to imagine and understand how proteins neurones, real material elements, can turn into a spirit which feels responsible for living beings of the whole operation.

The decisions taken by this spirit are often unconscious and free will does not exist, if we stay at the level of physical science. But these phenomena have great importance in the lives of individuals and societies. Unconscious decisions can create apparently unforeseeable or unavoidable events.

Fortunately, cognitive relations, social contacts and philosophy have created rules of life in organised societies, which give the illusion to individuals that they are able to intervene in the events of their lives. In the normal frame of reference, this illusion is sufficient, and unconsciously people are happy with it.

Intuition might be a faculty, – more or less developed in contacts between human individuals -, which would short-circuit the sequence of decisions, whether they are expressed or not, the last part being often a hesitation between two or more ideas and how to express them.

This phenomenon would remove an apparently conscious part of reflection and the decision would be taken without this period of consideration that does not in itself bring anything « genetically » more valuable.

This does not alter the fact that free will does not exist, which is hidden to us by our friend, chance.

There is no conscience or other entity controlling a specific program that supposedly controls evolution or some changes. All organs are created and evolve, without consideration of their usefulness to the organism.

Evolution exists, but its results are not always useful for the development of the organism, according to our human appreciation. It moves in all directions, and we can only know the organs or the organisms that have survived their modifications.

This might confirm a current theory which would partially explain why the majority of the dinosaurs would have disappeared in a few million years, 70 or 80 million years ago, with an evolution which was probably inadequate to their way of living or a climatic change, where they existed.

Observed after evolution, all organs and organisms seem to have been created and to have evolved for a specific purpose. There is no such purpose.

There is no mechanism that would correspond to the control or monitoring of an operation. This could take place only in the presence of an entity that would be conscious of events and would have the means to guide these actions. We have seen that the Universe does not have it.

But in our immediate environment, at our human scale on our planet, living beings, human in particular, were able to use to their benefit naturally occurring genetic modifications, called mutations. These were sometimes beneficial depending on the circumstances of the moment. They subsequently multiplied them, and tried to create more modifications to try to improve their living conditions and, in particular, to fight against seemingly incurable diseases and difficulties of life. They have managed to modify, usually very modestly, organisms that are called GMOs, some of which are poorly understood and variously exploited by political movements or subjective beliefs.

From their appearance, living beings have evolved, in order to enable them to adapt to their environment, with the creation of other individuals and lifestyles. They have advanced together, according to their senses, their environment and contacts with each other, creating and developing cognitive relations that became social.

For some, amongst which Human Beings, the evolution of exchanges has led to language as a tool to make life easier, and enabling communications, whether essential or accessory ones.

When these living beings began to analyse their relationships, philosophy appeared in order to understand that spirit supposedly transforming the realities observed turning them into more complex concepts such as the soul and existence.

It is generally admitted that only human beings have a spirit.

But what do we know of other non-human persons, to whom we recognise a certain level of intelligence as we understand it, and of those who do not seem to need a spirit to exist?

Similar reactions of some individuals to external phenomena depend on acquired reflexes, sometimes imposed by the leaders of these people, for the good of their community or under this pretext. This may involve physical and mental behaviour such as military obedience, and exclusive beliefs, usually religious ones.

© Philippe Dardel – October 2016